1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris simplicifrons Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Trinidad-Tobago to S. Tropical America.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    Throughout the Amazon region, in tropical moist and wet forest on terra firme. Common and widespread throughout the Amazon region and adjacent areas in Colombia (Amazonas, Córdoba, Guainía, Vaupés), Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), Trinidad and Tobago, the Guianas, Ecuador (Napo, Sucumbíos), Peru (Cusco, Huánuco, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martfn, Ucayali), Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima), and Bolivia (Beni , La Paz, Pando); lowland forest on terra firme, but also in open, sandy areas at both low and high (10-1800) m elevations.
    Vernacular
    Brazil: maraja, ubim-mirim. Colombia: chontaduro de rana de rastrajo. jo-da-jime-ru (Huitoto), oo-ree-ñaw (Barasana). u-ma-chú-ku-su (Kofan). Guyana; parapi-balli. Peru; ceyacepan (Ameshua), chontilla, kamanchá (Mayna Jívaro), mashipongo, pijuaito, rotetenpar (Ameshua). Suriname: kiskismaka, yuyba. Venezuela; corocillo, cubarillo, San Pablo.
    General Description
    Stems solitary or cespitose, 0.5-2 m tall, 0.3-1 cm diam., erect or leaning, not spiny on internodes. Leaves 5-9; leaf spines absent except for apex of pinnae, or spines scattered, black, flattened, to 1.5 cm long, few to moderate on sheath and petiole; sheath 5-20 cm long, closed but not forming a crownshaft; ocrea to 2 cm long; petiole 5-26 cm long; rachis 8-25 cm long; blade typically simple and shaped like a whale's tail fin , the lobes 24-58 cm long, 1.5-15 cm wide, or oblanceolate, plicate, deeply bifid apically and cuneate basally, or leaf pinnate, the pinnae 2-6(-20) per side, irregularly or regularly arranged, linear, linear-lanceolate or sigmoid, glabrous except for a few, small spines distally on margins, rarely sparsely and minutely spinulose or pilose abaxially; middle pinnae 10-33 x 1.5-15 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar but appearing infrafoliar because exserted through leaf sheath; peduncle 3-4 cm long, strongly recurved in fruit, not spiny; prophyll 3-7 cm long; peduncular bract 6-12 cm long, usually not spiny, glabrous, whitish or brownish tomentose, erect at anthesis and forming an angle of ca. 30° with stem; rachis 0-0.5 cm long; rachillae 1-2(-3), 3-6 cm long, at anthes is pendulous, densely whitish brown-tomentose or almost glabrous; triads regularly arranged almost throughout rachilla(e); staminate flowers 3.5-4.5 mm long, deciduous; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 3-5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 2.5-5.5 mm long; calyx tubular, 2.5-5 mm long; corolla tubular, 2.5-5.5 mm long; staminodes absent; fruits 5-8 mm diam., globose, rostrate, orange or red; mesocarp starchy; endocarp obovoid, longitudinally grooved, the pores equally spaced; endocarp fibers few or absent; fruiting perianth with deeply 3-lobed calyx as long as the deeply 3-lobed corolla, without staminodial ring. Understorey palm. Stems solitary or clustered, to 1.5 m tall, only 5-6 mm in diameter. Plants spineless except for minute bristles along the outer leaf margin. Leaf blade 15-40 cm long, simple and then with rachis less than 10 cm long, or more or less regularly divided, with up to 7 sigmoid pinnae on each side, these inserted in one plane, the central ones to 16 cm long, 2.5-3.0 cm wide. Inflorescence unbranched, 4-8 cm long, with glabrous peduncular bract. Female flowers scattered along the branches, with a tubular calyx enclosing the corolla. Fruit 5-10 mm in diameter, yellow to red, glabrous; fruiting perianth with a 3-lobed calyx as long as the 3-lobed corolla; staminodial ring absent.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 400 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Subarbusto, arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Bactris simplicifrons Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Sasaki, D. [2435], Mato Grosso K000652774
    Nov 1, 2006 Projeto Flora Cristalino [84], Mato Grosso K000652792
    Jan 1, 1997 Brazil K000584919 syntype
    Jan 1, 1997 Trail, J.W.H. [915], Brazil K000584920 syntype
    Jan 1, 1997 Trail, J.W.H. [916], Brazil K000584921 syntype
    Jan 1, 1997 Trail, J.W.H. [918], Brazil K000584922
    Jan 1, 1995 Trail, J.W.H. [919], Brazil K000584918 syntype
    Trail, J.W.H. [940], Brazil K000584915 holotype
    Trail, J.W.H. [914], Brazil K000584917 holotype
    Spruce, R. [77], Brazil K000526438 holotype
    Spruce, R. [52], Brazil K000526439 holotype

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 103 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0