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  1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Desmoncus Mart.
      1. Desmoncus orthacanthos Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Brazil.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    From 8°45'-23°01'S and 35°06'-43°28'W in the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil at 105(0-700) m elevation, usually near the sea in restinga or scrub forest Widespread in tropical America, from Mexico to Bolivia, below 1000 m elevation, often in coastal areas.
    General Description
    Plants 2.6(1.2-4.0) m tall; stems 1.3(0.7-2.2) cm diameter, clustered. Leaf petioles 6.4(2.0-15.0) cm long; rachises 59.6(30.5-85.0) cm long, 4.6(2.9-6.8) mm wide, the spines usually >1 cm long, mostly adaxial or lateral, straight with briefly swollen bases; pinnae 9(6-14) per side of rachis, without long, filiform apices, without a beard of spines at the bases, without spinules or dense tomentum at the bases adaxially; basal pinna 14.3(7.6-25.0) cm long, 2.6(1.0-4.8) cm wide; cirri well-developed, with acanthophylls, without spines abaxially, with intermediate acanthophylls present (i.e., distalmost pair of pinnae reflexed as acanthophylls and with swollen bases and/or proximalmost acanthophylls like vestigial pinnae), without a wide gap between pinnae and acanthophylls. Inflorescences with the rachis angular, slightly twisted, thicker than the closely spaced and spirally arranged rachillae, each rachilla not adnate to the rachis and with an irregular bracteole adnate to the rachilla and appearing displaced distally onto the rachilla, with a poorly- to well-developed axillary pulvinus; peduncles 3.9(2.0-7.2) mm wide; peduncular bracts 26.4(19.0-39.0) cm long, broad, the surfaces ribbed, brown tomentose, rarely with long, straight or sinuous, briefly swollen-based, diagonally or vertically oriented spines, these flattened or triangular in cross-section, whitish-brown proximally, black or brown distally, with tomentose margins; rachillae 14(8-22), glabrous or scarcely tomentose initially; proximal rachillae 10.4(5.0-20.5) cm long, 0.8(0.3-1.2) mm wide; stamens 5-7; fruits 14.4(11.4-18.4) mm long, 10.9(8.4-15.2) mm wide, the surfaces uneven with numerous, subepidermal, short, often branching (Yshaped) fibers; fruiting corollas less than one quarter as long as fruits, splitting irregularly into 3 lobes, the lobes often splitting again; endocarps globose to obovoid with rounded or slightly peaked apices, the pores lateral.Plants 2.6(1.2-4.0) m tall; stems 1.3(0.7-2.2) cm diameter, clustered. Leaf petioles 6.4(2.0-15.0) cm long; rachises 59.6(30.5-85.0) cm long, 4.6(2.9-6.8) mm wide, the spines usually >1 cm long, mostly adaxial or lateral, straight with briefly swollen bases; pinnae 9(6-14) per side of rachis, without long, filiform apices, without a beard of spines at the bases, without spinules or dense tomentum at the bases adaxially; basal pinna 14.3(7.6-25.0) cm long, 2.6(1.0-4.8) cm wide; cirri well-developed, with acanthophylls, without spines abaxially, with intermediate acanthophylls present (i.e., distalmost pair of pinnae reflexed as acanthophylls and with swollen bases and/or proximalmost acanthophylls like vestigial pinnae), without a wide gap between pinnae and acanthophylls. Inflorescences with the rachis angular, slightly twisted, thicker than the closely spaced and spirally arranged rachillae, each rachilla not adnate to the rachis and with an irregular bracteole adnate to the rachilla and appearing displaced distally onto the rachilla, with a poorly- to well-developed axillary pulvinus; peduncles 3.9(2.0-7.2) mm wide; peduncular bracts 26.4(19.0-39.0) cm long, broad, the surfaces ribbed, brown tomentose, rarely with long, straight or sinuous, briefly swollen-based, diagonally or vertically oriented spines, these flattened or triangular in cross-section, whitish-brown proximally, black or brown distally, with tomentose margins; rachillae 14(8-22), glabrous or scarcely tomentose initially; proximal rachillae 10.4(5.0-20.5) cm long, 0.8(0.3-1.2) mm wide; stamens 5-7; fruits 14.4(11.4-18.4) mm long, 10.9(8.4-15.2) mm wide, the surfaces uneven with numerous, subepidermal, short, often branching (Yshaped) fibers; fruiting corollas less than one quarter as long as fruits, splitting irregularly into 3 lobes, the lobes often splitting again; endocarps globose to obovoid with rounded or slightly peaked apices, the pores lateral. Subcanopy reaching liana. Stems clustered, to 10 m long, ca. 2 cm i diameter, usually covered with persistent sheaths. Leaves 1.5-2 m long, the axis with numerous black, slender spines, distally often unarmed but with a number of pinnae modified into climbing hooks; pinnae to 25 on each side, more or less evenly spaced, narrowly elliptic, to 20 cm long and 2-5 cm wide. Inflorescence 30-40 cm long, with 20-50 branches. Fruits red, elongate, 1.5-2 cm long

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Desmoncus orthacanthos Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Trail, J.W.H. [1087], Brazil K000632595 holotype
    Trail, J.W.H. [1087], Brazil K000632596 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000526431 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000526432 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000526433 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000574523 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000574524 holotype
    Broadway, W.E. [4077], Trinidad & Tobago K000574525 holotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 87 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Henderson, A. (2011). A revision of Desmoncus (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 35: 1-88.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    • Henderson, A., A revision of Desmoncus (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 35. 2011
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Henderson, A. (2011). A revision of Desmoncus (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 35: 1-88.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0