1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Elaeis Jacq.
      1. Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Vernacular
    The African Oil Palm
    Diagnostic
    Easily recognizable by its arching, dark-green leaves and straight trunk clothed when young with petiole-bases
    Ecology
    Is cultivated and occurs spontaneously in much of the forest zone from Senegal to Cameroun, being particularly abundant near habitations, in land which has been tilled, and in river valleys.
    Note
    Several forms, differing in structure and colour of the fruit, are described in Kew Bull. 1909: 33 and 1914: 285, and in Holland 4: 734.
    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Robust tree palm, in cultivated specimens often flowering while still trunkless.
    Trunk
    Trunk to 30 m. tall, usually much less, 30–50 cm. diameter, rarely broader, covered by remains of leaf-bases when young, eventually becoming bare, but in high rainfall areas frequently obscured by epiphytes.
    Leaves
    Crown massive, consisting of 40–50 expanded leaves in a 8/13 phyllotaxis. Leaves to 7.5 m. long in well-grown adults; leaf-base long-persistent, with coarse brown fibres and upward pointing fibre-spines to 35 × 5 mm., ± 10 mm. distant, confined to the sheath-margins; petiole to 1.25 m. long, to 20 cm. wide at the base, distally armed with bulbous-based spines to 4 cm. long by 1 cm. wide at the base, 1–5 cm. distant, representing pulvini and midribs of the basal-most leaflets; rachis semicircular in cross-section proximally, tapering above, with 2 lateral grooves or faces; leaflets eventually 100–150 on each side, inserted rather irregularly in 2 planes, the whole leaf hence plumose, to 120 cm. long, 8 cm. wide (in var. idolatrica A. Chev., a rare mutant, the lamina remaining ± entire, not splitting into leaflets).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences either male or female, or rarely bearing both male and female, or even more rarely with hermaphrodite flowers, individual palms passing through alternating phases of male and female inflorescence production. Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
    Male
    Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit partially enclosed in the enlarged calyx and corolla, tipped by stylar remains, very variable in size, ± 3–5.5 × 2–3 cm., somewhat asymmetrical, usually bright orange with dark red, almost black pigmentation in the exposed upper parts; mesocarp ± 5–10 mm. thick, yellowish, oil-rich; endocarp blackish brown, 2–5 mm. thick.
    Seeds
    Seed usually 1 only, 2–3 × 1–1.5 cm. with a thin integument; endosperm homogeneous with a narrow central cavity, oil-rich.
    Figures
    Figs. 10 and 11.
    Habitat
    In E. Africa, confined to gallery forest in high rainfall areas; sea-level to ± 1500 m.
    Distribution
    moister areas of tropical Africa and E. Madagascarnow widespread throughout the tropics as an oil-producing crop      Africa   coastal towns, upland towns, Amani K7 P T2 T3 T6 U2 Z
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Native to W Africa, but planted throughout the tropics for its oil-rich fruits which are a major source of plant oil on a world scale (Hartley, 1977). In Ecuador it is grown in large plantations below 500 m elevation, particularly in the Santo Domingo-Quinind� area.
    General Description
    Canopy palm. Stem solitary, erect, to 10 m tall, ca. 30-50 cm in diameter. Leaves to 5 m long; pinnae 100 or more on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes. Fruits glossy red to black.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Burkina, Caroline Is., Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Haiti, Madagascar, Malaya, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Trinidad-Tobago

    Elaeis guineensis Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [71], Burkina Faso K000521705
    Oct 18, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [20], Kenya K000521706
    Jan 1, 1953 Drummond, R.B. [3341], Tanzania K000731678
    Greenway, P.J. [12080], Tanzania K000731676
    Chase [DNA Bank30864] K000526299
    Kirk [s.n.], Tanzania K000521707
    Perdue, R.E. [8487], Tanzania K000731677
    Cultivated [1981-216] K000521708
    Ceciliano dos Prazeres Bom Jesus [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe 64781.000
    Ceciliano [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe K000209343

    First published in Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 280 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 8: 125.
    • Select. Stirp. Am. Hist. 280, t. 172 (1763)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 70 (1982).
    • Hamilton, Uganda For. Trees: 76 (1981).
    • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 161 (1968).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 11 (1961).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 292 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 398 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 241 (1949).
    • A. Chev. in Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Fr.: 7 (1910).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 2: 234 (1908).
    • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 125 (1901).
    • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 131 (1895).
    • Kirk in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 9: 231 (1866).
    • Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 280, t. 172 (1763).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0