1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Euterpe Mart.
      1. Euterpe edulis Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil to Argentina (Misiones).

    [PW]
    General Description
    Stems solitary, or rarely cespitose and then with few stems, erect, 5-12 m tall, 10-15 cm diam., usually gray with lichens, with a dense cone of reddish brown roots at base, these 1-2 cm diam. Leaves 8-15, spreading; sheath 0.8-1.4 m long including a 2-3 cm long ligule, olive green to dark green, sometimes reddish or orange-tinged, glabrous or with reddish brown scales; petiole 13-54 cm long, densely to moderately covered with flat, brown, reddish brown or black scales; rachis 1.5-3 m long, with few to many scales like those of petiole; pinnae 38-62(-70) per side, spreading or pendulous, subopposite, regularly arranged, rarely somewhat clustered, with prominent midvein and submarginal lateral veins present either side, the mid vein with brown ramenta abaxially, with obscure or prominent punctations abaxially; basal pinna 29-50 x 0.5-0.8 cm; middle pinnae 49-80(- 106) x 1.5-4 cm; apical pinna 15-35 x 0.6-1 cm. Inflorescences infrafoliar and ± horizontal at anthesis; peduncle 4-8.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm diam.; prophyll to 1 m long; peduncular bract 61-65(-104) cm long including a 1 cm long umbo, with smaller, incomplete bracts to 4 cm long present on peduncle and rachis; rachis 45-69 cm long; rachillae 49-110(-120), 26-58(-75) cm long, to 2 mm diam. at anthesis, 3-4.5 mm diam. in fruit, arranged all round the rachis, zig-zag especially near apex, light brown or reddish brown when dry, densely covered with 0.1 mm long, rounded, granular hairs; flowers in triads for ca. ?, of the rachillae, paired or solitary staminate distally, the triads often distichously arranged; triad bracteole rounded, to 1 mm long; first flower bracteole obscure, second and third flower bracteoles unequal, the longest to 1.5 mm long; slaminate flowers 5-6 mm long, purplish; sepals deltate, 2 mm long, gibbous; petals lanceolate, 5 mm long; stamens arranged on a short receptacle; filaments 1.5- 22.5 mm long, flattened; anthers 2.5-3 mm long; pistillode ca. 1 mm long, trifid at apex; pistillate flowers 3-4.5 mm long; sepals very widely ovate, 3-4 mm long; petals very widely ovate, 5 mm long. Fruits globose, 1-1.4 cm diam., the stigmatic remains subapical; epicarp black at maturity, minutely tuberculate; seeds globose; endosperm homogeneous; eophyll palmate.
    Vernacular
    Argentina: yayih; Brazil: coco de palmito, coco de jissara, coco de usara, ensarova, icara, incara, iucara, jicara, jocara, jucoara, jucara, jucara vermelho, jucara branca, junca, palmiteiro, palmeteiro branco, palmeteiro encapado, palmeteiro macho, palmeteiro vermelho, palmeteiro-doce, palmito, palmito-doce, palmito-ju?ara, palmito amarelo, palmito vermelho, ripa, ripeira; Paraguay: palmito, yayi
    Distribution
    Atlantic coast of Brazil and adjacent areas (Alagoas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sui, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe) and just reaching northeastern Argentina (Misiones) and southeastern Paraguay (Alto Paraná); rain forest on steep slopes, rarely in inundated areas, at 0-1000 m. This species can form large stands on ridges and valley slopes, especially on quartzite and sandy soils. It also colonizes areas where the forest has been disturbed.
    [PW]
    Use
    Euterpe edulis was for many years the most important species for the extraction of palm heart and was the industry standard. Records show that in 1965 Paraguay exported 3205 metric tons of palm heart (representing the destruction of several million trees); and in 1968-1970 Brazil exported an annual average of 2650 metric tons (Landini & Landini, 1976; Kitze & Johnson, 1975). All the harvest was from wild plants, and populations of E. edulis have shrunk drastically as a result. There is now much research in Brazil on conservation and cultivation of E. edulis (e.g., Anonymous, 1987). Hybrids have been made between this species and E. oleracea (Bovi et a1., 1987). It is perhaps not generally appreciated that populations of E. edulis exist with cespitose stems (e.g., Noblick & Brito 4800), and these should be investigated for cultivation. Other minor uses include stems that are used in construction, leaves for thatching, and fruits made into a drink.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay

    Euterpe edulis Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2014 Fernandes, H.Q. B. [2712], Brazil K000574535 paratype
    Jan 1, 2009 Projeto Flora Cristalino [69], Mato Grosso K000652786
    Dec 20, 1998 Asaha [1] 64028.000
    Dec 20, 1998 Asaha [001], Cameroon K000520344
    Oct 24, 1996 Silva [01556], Brazil K000520343

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 33 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Gauto, M.I. (2009). Conservation status assessment of Paraguayan Palms (Arecaceae): 1-132. Universitéde Genève, Faculté des sciences. Masters in Biology.
    • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zappi, D.C. & al. (2003). Lista das plantas vasculares de Catoles Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 21(2): 345-398.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson, Flora Neotropica Monograph 72
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0