1. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Scadoxus Raf.
      1. Scadoxus puniceus (L.) Friis & Nordal

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Amaryllidaceae, Inger Nordal (University of Oslo). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Herb up to 75 cm. tall, with rhizomatous bulb.
    Leaves
    Petioles forming a false stem 5–50 cm. long; leaf-blade lanceolate to ovate, acute to acuminate, basally attenuate; leaves often produced some time after anthesis.
    Scape
    Scape (15–) 20–40 (–75) cm. long; false stem and scape often spotted brown-red to dark violet.
    Bracts
    Involucral bracts intact and erect during anthesis, lanceolate to spathulate or rhombic, sometimes hastate, (2.5–)3–8.5 cm. long, (0.7–)1–3.5 (–4) cm. broad, red (in East Africa) to brown, violet or even green.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence conical, ±(20–) 30–100-flowered.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 1–2.5(–3.5)cm. long.
    Perianth
    Perianth colour pink to scarlet, outside East Africa also yellow-green and greenish pink, segments often paler than filaments; perianth-tube cylindrical, 0.3–1.2 cm. long; segments erect to somewhat patent, linear, 1.3–2.7 cm. long, 0.7–2(–2.5) mm. broad, (1–)3(–5)-nerved.
    Stamens
    Filaments filiform, 1.5–3.5 cm. long at anthesis, anthers 1–3 mm. long, red or yellow.
    Fruits
    Berries 5–10 mm. in diameter.
    Habitat
    Montane forests, stream valleys or swamps on ground or epiphytic; 2000–2700 m. Outside East Africa also in drier vegetation types and at lower altitudes.
    Distribution
    T4 T7
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Amaryllidaceae by C. Zimudzi, R.H. Archer, E.G. Kwembeya & I. Nordal

    Habit
    Bulbous herb up to 60 cm tall with a pseudostem 3–10 cm long.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate to ovate lanceolate, acute to almost obtuse, basally attenuate.
    Scape
    Scape up to 36 cm long; involucral bracts intact and erect at anthesis, lanceolate or obovate, ± hastate, 3.6–5.9(7.6) × 1.6–3.2(5.8) cm, reddish to brownish.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence conical, (16)66–150 flowered.
    Perianth
    Perianth tube 0.4–0.6 cm long; segments greenish to reddish, linear, 11–15 × 0.6–1 mm, erect, most often 1-nerved.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (0.8)2–3(3.8) cm long.
    Filaments
    Filaments 1.4–2.1 cm long at anthesis; anthers 1–1.6(2.6) mm long, yellowish in colour.
    Fruits
    Berries red, up to 1 cm in diameter.
    Distribution
    A heterogenous and widespread species with a disjunct distribution in southern Africa north to Ethiopia.
    Ecology
    Occurs in woodland and forest; 10–1400 m.
    Conservation
    Conservation notes: Moderately widespread; not threatened. Considered Data Deficient in Zimbabwe (Sabonet Red Data List 2002).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Scadoxus puniceus (L.) Friis & Nordal appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    15601.000
    Scheepers, J.C. [771], South Africa K000366064 isoneotype
    Scheepers, J.C. [771], South Africa K000366063 isoneotype
    Gumbleton [s.n.], South Africa K000366067 holotype
    Krelage [s.n.], South Africa K000366066 lectotype
    Strickland, C.W. [s.n.], South Africa K000366065 syntype
    Brown, G. [114], Tanzania Haemanthus goetzei 42900.000

    First published in Norweg. J. Bot. 23: 64 (1976)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2008). Flora Zambesiaca 13(1): 1-140. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zimudzi, C., Archer, R.H., Kwembeya, E.G. & Nordal, I. (2006). Synopsis of Amaryllidaceae from the Flora Zambesiaca area Kirkia. The Zimbabwe Journal of Botany 18: 151-168.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nordal, I. (1982). Amaryllidaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-30.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Fl. Ethiopia 6: 158 (1997).
    • ―Nordal in F.T.E.A, Amaryllidaceae: 5 (1982);
    • in Norw. J. Bot. 23: 64 (1976).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zimudzi, C., Archer, R.H., Kwembeya, E.G. & Nordal, I. (2006). Synopsis of Amaryllidaceae from the Flora Zambesiaca area Kirkia. The Zimbabwe Journal of Botany 18: 151-168.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Nordal, I. (1982). Amaryllidaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-30.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Friis & Nordal in Norw. Journ. Bot. 23:64(1976).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0