1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Livistona R.Br.
      1. Livistona australis (R.Br.) Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. & SE. Australia.

    [PW]
    Habitat
    Grows in moist areas of open forest, swamp forest, moist sclerophyll forests, along stream banks and in rainforest, 0-1000 m alt. Often locally common and may grow in large colonies. In the north confined to high elevation above 400 m and in central and southern parts in coastal and near-coastal lowland areas. Flowers all year; fruits all year.
    Vernacular
    Cabbage Palm, Cabbage Tree.
    General Description
    Functionally dioecious palm. Trunk to 25 m tall, 25-40 cm dbh, leaf scars raised, internodes broad, brown, longitudinal fissures prominent, petiole stubs retained in the lower 2 m or so, otherwise deciduous. Leaves 35-60 in a globose crown; petiole 150-250 cm long, 10-20 mm wide, adaxially moderately ridged, margins smooth or with short single black curved spines congested in the proximal portion, a thin yellowish-green longitudinal stripe present on the abaxial surface; leaf-base fibres prominent, finely woven, sheet-like, persistent; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, ± circular, 100-130 cm long, chartaceous, adaxially dark green, glossy, abaxially slightly lighter green, nonwaxy; lamina divided for 49-69% of its length, with 80-100 segments, depth of apical cleft 50-63% of the segment length, apical lobes acute, pendulous; parallel veins 8 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins. Inflorescences unbranched at the base, not sexually dimorphic, 140-250 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, branched to 5 orders; partial inflorescences 6-9; peduncular bract(s) lacking; rachis bracts loosely sheathing, densely floccose; rachillae 5-25 mm long, glabrous. Flowers solitary or in clusters of 2-4, funnel-shaped, white to cream to pale yellow; sepals triangular, 1.2-2 mm long, fleshy, acute; petals triangular to ovate, 2-3.5 mm long, fleshy, subacute to obtuse; stamens ca 2.5 mm long. Fruit globose, 12- 22 mm diam., dull reddish-brown to black, occasionally glaucous; epicarp with scattered lenticellular pores; suture line extends almost the length of the fruit; pedicel 2-3 mm long. Seed globose, 10-16 mm wide. Eophyll 5-ribbed.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Distribution
    Australia. Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. In the northern part of its range in Queensland confined to high elevation on Paluma Ra., Seaview Ra., Mt Elliot, Mt Abbott, and Eungella Ra. with a major disjunction to Fraser Is., and then more or less continuously at low to moderate elevation south through south-eastern Queensland, through coastal New South Wales and with a minor disjunction to the Brodribb R.in eastern Victoria.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria

    Introduced into:

    Society Is.

    Livistona australis (R.Br.) Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 10, 1983 Cultivated [392-26-23904] K000209844
    Melville, R. [2933], Australia K000209712
    Melville, R. [2933], Australia K000209713
    Melville, R. [2933], Australia K000209719
    unknown [s.n.] K000209837
    unknown [s.n.] K000209972
    White [7764], Australia K000209711
    Irvine [1930], Australia K000209715
    Irvine [1928], Australia K000209720
    Irvine [1929], Australia K000209724
    Clemens [s.n.], Australia K000209714
    29047.489
    Rodd, A. [3031], Australia K000209716
    Rodd, A. [s.n.], Australia K000209717
    Rodd, A. [s.n.], Australia K000209718
    Rodd, A. [3030], Australia K000209721
    Bourne, A.G. [s.n.] K000209840
    Cultivated [1991-159] K000209841
    Comte de Kerchove de Deterghem [s.n.] K000209838
    Comte de Kerchove de Deterghem [s.n.] K000209839
    Osborn, T.S.B. [s.n.], Australia K000209909

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 242 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2009). A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae) Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60: 185-344.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0