1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Livistona R.Br.
      1. Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Japan to China (Guangdong).

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1600 m.
    Habit
    Árbol, palma solitaria
    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Chinese fan palm, Biro (Japanese). Okinawa, Iriomote and Aharen, and on Kyushu, Aoshima (Yoshida et al., 2000) and Shikoku (Horikawa, 1972; Suzuki, 1982). In Taiwan on Kisanto Is., and in China on Hainan Is. and formerly recorded in Guangdong Province but now apparently extinct there in the wild.
    Distribution
    Japan, China and Taiwan. In Japan, on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa, riomote and Aharen, and on Kyushu, Aoshima (Yoshida et al., 2000) and Shikoku (Horikawa, 1972; Suzuki, 1982). In Taiwan on Kisanto Is., and in China on Hainan Is. and formerly recorded in Guangdong Province but now apparently extinct there in the wild
    General Description
    Hermaphroditic palm. Trunk to 15 m tall, 20-30 cm dbh, leaf scars obscure, roughened and with remnant tissue, light coloured, internodes narrow, irregular, brown to grey with age, petiole stubs not persistent, longitudinal fissures prominent. Leaves 40-60 in a globose to ovoid crown; petiole slightly arching, to 180 cm long, ca 15 cm wide in the middle, adaxially flat or slightly ridged, surface glabrous; margins with single curved spines in the proximal one-half or less or sometimes absent, distal margins otherwise sharp and slightly winged; spines 2-20 mm long, subulate, green to black; leaf-base fibre not prominent, coarse, and disintegrating; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, subcircular to reniform, 120-200 cm long, 120-180 cm wide, light yellowish green on both surfaces, dull to glossy, nonwaxy; lamina divided for 45-55% of its length, with 50-90 segments, depth of apical cleft ca 13% of the segment length, apical lobes pendulous; lower segments 2-5 mm wide, filamentous, parallel veins 8-9 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins; hastula ca 3 cm high. Inflorescence unbranched at the base, 100-120 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, slightly curving, branched to 3 orders; 6-7 partial inflorescences; rachillae 10-18 cm long, to 9 mm diameter, glabrous; peduncular bract(s) lacking; rachis bracts tomentose or scaly, loosely tubular, disintegrating into open chartaceous fibres with age, brown, apex acute. Flowers in clusters of 4-7, subglobose in bud, 2-2.5 mm long, white to yellowish; sepals imbricate, ca 1.5 mm long, rounded, margins hyaline, inner surface striate; petals triangular, apically pointed, fleshy, ca 2.2 mm long, ca 2 mm wide; filaments united at the base, free in the upper part, connective thickish, ca 0.5 mm long; anthers ca 0.5 mm long; style sharply tapered, ca the same height as the anthers. Fruit globose, subglobose, ellipsoid or pyriform,15-26 mm long, 9-18 mm wide, glossy blue-green to bright green; epicarp ceramic-like; suture line extends for full length of fruit, marked with lip-like structures; mesocarp ca 1.5 mm wide, fleshy, slightly oily, moderately fibrous, endocarp woody, ca 0.5 mm wide; pedicel 2-3 mm long. Seed globose, subglobose to ellipsoid, variously reniform in longitudinal section, ca 14 mm long, ca 10 mm wide; endosperm intruded by the testa to ca one-half to two-thirds through to form a cavity filled with brown crystalline tissue; embryo supra-lateral to lateral. Eophyll 7-ribbed.
    Habitat
    Coastal forests on various soils, often in sand, sometimes in dense mono-specific colonies, otherwise in small isolated colonies, 1-100 m alt. Flowers Feb-Apr; fruits Apr-Sept.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China Southeast, Hainan, Japan, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bermuda, Dominican Republic, Florida, Hawaii, India, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Marianas, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Trinidad-Tobago

    Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 28, 2003 Rutherford, S. [R101], Sri Lanka K000209869
    Jul 20, 2003 Nur [s.n.], Singapore K000209860
    Jun 23, 2003 Bojer [s.n.] K000209858
    Jan 1, 2003 Ohwi, J. [TSM995], Japan K000209596
    Jan 1, 2003 Ohwi, J. [TSM995], Japan K000209597
    Jan 1, 2003 Furuse, M [4570], Japan K000209598
    Jan 1, 2003 Furuse, M [4177], Japan K000209599
    Oct 24, 2002 Wood, K.R. [2102] K000209868
    Nov 11, 1985 Churchill, H.W. [6023], Panama K000209861
    Sep 21, 1978 Melegrito [10029], Malaysia K000209870
    Nov 15, 1976 Deighton, J.C. [2978], Sierra Leone K000209910
    Jan 29, 1975 Harris, S.A. [TP538], Guyana K000209865
    Mar 9, 1934 Henry, A. [Formosa821], Taiwan K000209594
    Mar 9, 1934 Henry, A. [Formosa821], Taiwan K000209918
    Mar 9, 1934 Henry, A. [Formosa821], Taiwan K000209919
    Jan 1, 1887 Beccari, O. [s.n.], India K000209854
    Greenway, P.J. [1042], Tanzania K000209977
    Greenway, P.J. [1042], Tanzania K000209978
    Wilson [8164], Japan K000209593
    unknown [s.n.] K000209845
    unknown [s.n.] K000209856
    unknown [s.n.] K000209907
    unknown [s.n.] K000209973
    unknown [s.n.] K000209974
    unknown [s.n.] K000209976
    Dransfield, J. [4462] 43751.000
    Dransfield, J. [4460] 43761.000
    Dransfield, J. [4463] K000209866
    Matthew, K.M. [RHT72880], India K000209862
    Matthew, K.M. [RHT30953], India K000209863
    Beccari, O. [s.n.], Indonesia K000209855
    illegible [11] K000209859
    Nur [s.n.], Singapore K000209864
    Hance [s.n.], China K000209905
    Cultivated [1982-5601] K000209867
    Curtiss, A.H. [656], Cuba K000209975
    Shiu Ying Hu [7067], China K000209595
    Shiu Ying Hu [5452], China K000209857
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29398], Singapore K000209846
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29396], Singapore K000209849
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29397], Singapore K000209851
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29398], Singapore K000209847
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29396], Singapore K000209850
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29397], Singapore K000209852
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29398], Singapore K000209848
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29398], Singapore K000209981
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN29398], Singapore K000209982
    Rutherford, S. [R52], Sri Lanka K000209871
    Ndozi [FHI15441], Nigeria K000209853
    Tambi, H.B. [s.n.], Singapore K000209979
    Tambi, H.B. [s.n.], Singapore K000209980
    Averyanov, L. [VH2407], Vietnam K000462494
    s.coll. [s.n.] 70000.280

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 240 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant records for 2009 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10.
    • Liu, H.S. (2011). Taxonomic notes on Livistona (Palmae) in flora of China Bulletin of Botanical Research, Harbin 31: 644-648.
    • Siebert, S.J., Zobolo, A.M. & Dowe, J.L. (2010). Livistona chinensis, a first record of a naturalised palm in South Africa Bothalia 40: 55-57.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2009). A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae) Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60: 185-344.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Siebert, S.J., Zobolo, A.M. & Dowe, J.L. (2010). Livistona chinensis, a first record of a naturalised palm in South Africa Bothalia 40: 55-57.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2009). A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae) Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60: 185-344.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0