1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Oncocalamus (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl.
      1. Oncocalamus mannii (H.Wendl.) H.Wendl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Cameroon to Gabon.

    [FWTA]

    Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    A slender-stemmed rattan of swampy forest, climbing to 60 ft.
    [PW]
    Distribution
    O. mannii is restricted from southern Cameroon to Gabon.
    Biology
    O. mannii is common in open areas, roadside and forest gaps. This species responds extremely well to selective logging and is a common component of regrowth vegetation.
    General Description
    Clustered slender to moderate palm climbing to 15-30 m. Stems without sheaths 8-16 mm in diameter, with 12-28 mm; internodes 12-18 cm long. Leaf sheath longitudinally striate, dark green, tan, often dull crimson brown on young sheaths, moderately to sparsely armed with brown-black spines, concentrated and persistent on the ocrea, spines often sloughing off elsewhere on sheath to leave conspicuous, raised, circular, blister-like scars; thin, white caducous indumentum present on mature sheaths, particularly dense on young sheaths and juvenile individuals; ocrea ± truncate or saddle-shaped with a 0.5-1.8 cm high rounded lobe opposite the rachis, armed as the leaf sheath, spines concentrated at ocrea margin, extending ± 2 cm. Spear leaf deep orange to bright crimson. Juvenile stems up to 6 m long, with sheaths, <1 cm in diameter, leaves sessile or with a short (1.5 cm) petiole, strongly bifid, eventually becoming pinnate, up to 30 cm long and 4.5-6 cm broad at the widest point and with a 60 cm long cirrus emerging from the centre; elaminate rachis often present at base of stem, up to 2.5m long. Leaves on mature stems sessile, or with a short (<2.5 cm) flattened petiole; rachis 1-1.2 m long, abaxially rounded, adaxially concave, becoming circular in cross section distally, armed as the leaf sheath, spines particularly profusely armed on underside, although often smaller than those on the sheath; cirrus 1-1.5 m long, unarmed; leaflets, 25-35 on each side of the rachis, linear-lanceolate, to mildly sigmoid, broadly attenuate at the base, apex somewhat acuminate, 16-32 cm long, 1.8-2.5 cm broad at the widest point, ± concolorous, dark green, armed along the margins with robust spines particularly at base of leaflet, single-nerved, with 6-7 conspicuous secondary nerves on each side; lowermost leaflets smaller than the rest, held vertical to rachis; acanthophylls up to 1.5 cm long. Inflorescences in successive axils 3-5m from stem apex; peduncle 8-15 cm long, hemispherical in cross section; prophyll 3-8 cm long; peduncular bracts 2-4, 2.5-4 cm long; rachis up to 0.8-1m long, pendulous; rachis bracts 2.5-4 cm long; rachillae circular in cross section, 15-28 cm long, pendulous, bracts deep-bright crimson prior to anthesis, becoming dry, brown; prophyll subtending flower cluster 3-5 mm, conspicuously striate. Flower cluster with 1-3 central pistallate flowers subtended by 2 lateral cincinni of 1-2 pistillate and 2-3 staminate flowers; staminate flowers 5.5-6.5 mm × 2-3 mm; calyx ca.5.0 mm × 5.0-5.5 mm, including 1 mm-long stalk, tubular for ½ to ¾ of its length; corolla ca.5 mm long, tubular for the basal ±1 mm, cream/yellow; staminodial tube ca.2 mm long; anthers 0.8 mm × 0.3 mm; pistillode 1.5 mm × 0.7 mm, thin, tapering; pistillate flowers similar to the staminate flowers, up to 3-4 mm wide; ovary ca.2.5 mm × ca.1.5 mm. tipped by 1-1.5 mm long style. Fruitat maturity, globose to sub-globose, 1.8-2.2 cm × 1.6-2 cm, with 15-17 rows of vertical scales. Seed sub-globose 1.2-1.6 cm × 1.5-1.9 cm, with a narrow rounded depression below, covered with regular polygonal depressions, giving a distinctly warty appearance; sarcotesta white, thin (<0.5 mm).
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

    Oncocalamus mannii (H.Wendl.) H.Wendl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2000 Mann, G. [1044(A)], Gabon K000321005 Unknown type material
    Dec 1, 2000 Bililong [351], Cameroon K000520014
    Jan 31, 2000 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1790], Cameroon K000520023
    Jan 31, 2000 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1888], Cameroon K000520032
    Jan 31, 2000 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1902], Equatorial Guinea K000520016
    Jan 31, 2000 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1919], Equatorial Guinea K000520015
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1768], Cameroon 70049.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1796], Equatorial Guinea 70050.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1793], Equatorial Guinea 62146.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1903], Equatorial Guinea 62147.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1908], Equatorial Guinea 64215.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1908], Equatorial Guinea 64216.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1923], Equatorial Guinea 64208.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1923], Equatorial Guinea 64209.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1768], Cameroon 64212.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1916], Equatorial Guinea 64213.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1921], Equatorial Guinea 64226.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1923], Equatorial Guinea 64227.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1887], Cameroon 64228.000
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1765], Cameroon K000520025
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1768], Cameroon K000520028
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1769], Cameroon K000520020
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1793], Equatorial Guinea K000520029
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1796], Equatorial Guinea K000520027
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1887], Cameroon K000520024
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1900], Equatorial Guinea K000520031
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1903], Equatorial Guinea K000520017
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1908], Equatorial Guinea K000520030
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1921], Equatorial Guinea K000520021
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1916], Equatorial Guinea K000520022
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1923], Equatorial Guinea K000520049
    Jun 15, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1929], Cameroon K000520026
    Jun 1, 1975 Otedoh, M. [7261], Nigeria K000522442
    Mann, G. [1044], Gabon K000321006
    Mann, G. [1044], Gabon K000321007
    Sunderland, T.C.H [s.n.], Cameroon 74665.000
    Van Valkenburg [2633], Gabon K000208503
    Van Valkenburg [2503], Gabon K000209668
    Otedoh, M. [7265], Nigeria K000522441
    Tuley [1078], Nigeria K000522443
    Tuley [1078], Nigeria K000522444
    Tuley [1078], Nigeria K000522445
    Gossweiler [H1039/24], Congo Oncocalamus acanthocnemis K000520007

    First published in O.C.E.de Kerchove de Denterghem, Palmiers: 252 (1878)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kerch., Palm. 252. Calamus (Oncocalamus) mannii Wendl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 24: 436, tt. 41, 43 (1864).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sunderland, T.C.H. (2012). A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) Phytotaxa 51: 1-76.

    Sources

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0