1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Phoenix L.
      1. Phoenix dactylifera L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Arabian Peninsula to S. Pakistan.

    [FWTA]

    Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Vernacular
    The Date palm
    Diagnostic
    Characteristic tall, straight trunk, clothed rather persistent leaf-bases, and head of stiff fronds
    Ecology
    Is not uncommon in the hotter dry parts of the region, being planted for ornament as much as for food.
    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Solitary or sparsely clustering palm, never thicket-forming, with massive erect trunk 40–50 cm. in diameter, ultimately to ± 20 m. tall, but rarely reaching more that 8 m. in East Africa.
    Trunk
    Trunk dull brown, conspicuously marked with leaf-sheath scars and short bases; leaf-bases ± 25–30 cm. wide and 10 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Crown of mature individuals with 50 or more green leaves. Leaf to 3 m. or more long with rather stiff rachis and petiole only slightly arcuate; true petiole to 20 cm. only, with coarse brown sacking-like sheath; apparent petiole 50-100 cm., armed with acanthophylls; acantho-phylls to 15 cm. long by 4 mm. wide, aligned in various directions; leaflets about 80 on each side of the rachis, stiff, moderately regular, sometimes slightly fanned, tending to point distally as opposed to being inserted at right-angles, dull glaucous green in colour, to 30 × 2 cm.
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescence large; peduncle to 60 cm. or more; prophyll ± 45 cm. by 10 cm. wide, brown furfuraceous when young; rachillae numerous to 30 cm. or more, with staminate flowers in scattered groups or singly. Female inflorescence as the ♂, but the peduncle greatly elongating after anthesis, pendulous; rachillae to 40 cm. long by 3 mm. wide.
    Flowers
    Male flower somewhat asymmetrical, rather obtuse at the tip, not acuminate; calyx to 2 mm. long; petals cream, fleshy, to 8 mm. long, 3 mm. wide; pistillode minute. Pistillate flower globose, ± 5 mm. in diameter at anthesis; calyx ± 2 mm. long; petals rounded ± 4 mm. long by 4 mm. wide, imbricate; carpels ±2.5 mm. long, only the reflexed stigmas exposed at anthesis.
    Male
    Male flower somewhat asymmetrical, rather obtuse at the tip, not acuminate; calyx to 2 mm. long; petals cream, fleshy, to 8 mm. long, 3 mm. wide; pistillode minute. Male inflorescence large; peduncle to 60 cm. or more; prophyll ± 45 cm. by 10 cm. wide, brown furfuraceous when young; rachillae numerous to 30 cm. or more, with staminate flowers in scattered groups or singly.
    Female
    Pistillate flower globose, ± 5 mm. in diameter at anthesis; calyx ± 2 mm. long; petals rounded ± 4 mm. long by 4 mm. wide, imbricate; carpels ±2.5 mm. long, only the reflexed stigmas exposed at anthesis. Female inflorescence as the ♂, but the peduncle greatly elongating after anthesis, pendulous; rachillae to 40 cm. long by 3 mm. wide.
    Fruits
    Fruit very variable, 4–7 cm. long by 2–3 cm. wide, varying from yellow to orangey brown, to deep chestnut or almost black in colour, with mesocarp varying from thick, sweet and juicy to thin and dry.
    Seeds
    Seed similarly variable, ± 2.4 cm. long by 0.6–0.8 cm. wide, with conspicuous longitudinal furrow; embryo lateral.
    Habitat
    Waste ground and village margins; sea-level to ± 2500 m.
    Distribution
    probably widespread throughout the region as a casually cultivated plantof unknown origin but possibly from Arabia, widely cultivated in the drier subtropics. Although quite frequent in East Africa, the date palm does not seem to be represented in herbaria from the region. K4 K7 T3 T6 coastal towns, upland towns
    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary, or sparsely clustering palm, with several suckering offshoots at base. Stem to 30 m tall, without leaf sheaths to c. 40 - 50 cm diam.; trunk dull brown, marked with diamond-shaped leaf base scars c. 10 x 25 - 30 cm. Leaves straight, obliquely vertical in orientation, to 3 - 4 (5) m long; leaf base 15 - 20 cm wide; pseudopetiole 50 - 100 cm long; leaf sheath reddish-brown, to c. 45 cm long, fibrous; acanthophylls sparsely arranged, pointing in several directions, to 20 cm long; leaflets variously arranged in 1 - 3 planes of orientation, c. 50 - 130 on each side of rachis, stiff, c. 40 x 2 cm in length; lamina concolorous, glaucous, drying pale green. Staminate inflorescences erect; prophyll splitting 1 - 2 times between margins, yellow- green with reddish-brown tomentum when young, becoming brown and coriaceous, to 45 x 12 cm; peduncle to c. 50 cm long; rachillae to 30 cm long. Staminate flowers crowded along full length of rachillae; calyx a 3-lobed cupule with uneven margin, loosely surrounding the corolla; petals, 3 (rarely 4), creamy yellow-white, fleshy, each 7- 10 x 3 - 5 mm with apex rounded and minutely serrate; stamen c. 5 mm. Pistillate inflorescences initially erect, becoming pendulous with maturity; prophyll splitting between margins, yellow-green, c. 100 cm long; peduncle yellow-green, 60 - 150 cm, greatly elongating after fertilisation; rachillae c. 150 in number, yellow, to c. 40 cm long, elongating with fruit maturation. Pistillate flowers mostly in distal half of rachillae, yellow-white, with faintly sweet scent; calyx cupule c. 2 - 3 mm high; petals, 3 (rarely 4), c. 4 - 5 x 4 mm. Fruit very variable in shape and size, 4 - 7 x 2 - 3 cm, ripening a range of colours from yellow and green to orange, red, purplish- brown to black; mesocarp sweet, thick and fleshy or dry and thin. Seed variable in size and shape but generally elongate, 20 - 30 x 5 - 8 mm, with apices rounded or pointed; embryo lateral opposite raphe; endosperm homogeneous.
    Conservation
    The conservation status of wild P. dactylifera is difficult to ascertain due to the continuing doubt as to whether it exists in that state. As a species, P. dactylifera cannot be considered threatened due to its extensive cultivation; however, positive conservation action may be necessary at the infraspecific level if diversity of date cultivars is to be maintained. Intrinsic within the hundreds of cultivars is a large reservoir of genetic diversity that has been the source of palms of varying vegetative and fruit characteristics for date palm growers through the ages. Recent years have seen a decrease in the number of varieties regularly propagated in cultivation. As with landraces and cultivars of all crops, active cultivation is vital to survival and a cultivar is soon lost for ever if it is not regularly propagated.
    Vernacular
    The names listed here refer to P. dactylifera as a species. The serious student of date palm varieties and cultivars must look to Popenoe (1973) for a comprehensive list of vernacular names, and their meanings. ARABIA. Usteh-khurma (fruit), nukhal (leaves), (Arabic), [Beccari (1890)]. Egypt. Balah (date palm), (Egyptian), [Taickholm & Drar (1950)]. INDIA. Pind, chirwi, bagri (fresh dates), bela (dry dates), khajur, chuhara (leaves), gadda, galli (palm 'cabbage'), (Hindi); payr-etchum manam (leaves), (Tamil); kharjurapu chettu, perita chettu (leaves), (Telinga), [Beccari (1890)]. IRAQ. Nakhla/Nakhl, (date palm), tamr (fully ripe dates), rutab (fresh, edible but only half-ripe dates), kurjan, khurma (leaves), (Arabic), [Dransfield (1985)]; gutla-i-khaur, tukhm-i-khurma (fruit), (Arabic), [Beccari (1890)]. TURKEY. Khurma (date palm), (Kurdish, Turkish), [Dransfield (1985)].
    Biology
    An old Arab proverb says of the date palm that 'its feet shall be in a stream of water, and its head in the furnace of heaven'. The ability of R dactylifera to thrive in hot, dry conditions with little or no rain, as long as there is constant moisture about the roots for healthy growth and seed germination, have made it the classic symbol of the oasis. Throughout its distribution the date palm is taken as a reliable indicator of ground water in wadis, crevices and rocky ravines. In addition to its resistance to hot, arid atmospheres, the date palm shows remarkable tolerance of high salinity and water-logging. Despite resistance to water-logging, date palms are very vulnerable to excess rainfall and high humidity. Nixon (1951) noted that date fruits mature properly only if rainfall during the fruit maturation period (July to October) is less than 1.5 cm. Date palms are best adapted to tropical or sub-tropical conditions where the average daily maximum temperature is over 35'C and frost is very rare (Nixon 1951). REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY. The date palm has long been thought to be wind- pollinated. However, there is evidence for both anemophily and entomophily in P. dactylifera and other species of the genus. The staminate inflorescences produce copious amounts of pollen, typical of anemophily. The grains lack a sticky pollen- coat and are at the lower end of the wind-borne size range. The pistillate flowers show less obvious adaptation to anemophily, lacking an extensive stigmatic surface for capturing wind-borne pollen. Furthermore, Uhl & Moore (1971) identified what could be interpreted as nectaries at the base of the ovary which could suggest entomophily. Many kinds of insects are frequent visitors to date palm inflorescences, but their role as pollinators has not been conclusively demonstrated. It seems that the pollination syndrome of wild date palms involves both anemophily and entomophily. Herrera (1989) reported that the only other European palm, Chamaerops humilis L., is also pollinated by a combination of insects and wind, and Henderson (1986) suggested that this is a common syndrome in palms. Many animals are involved in dispersal of wild dates, as is the case with most palms (Zona & Henderson 1989). Ridley (1930) recorded the dispersal of dates by bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Several authors (e.g., Parrott 1980) have noted partially- eaten dates impaled upon the sharp acanthophylls of date palm leaves and have attributed it, circumstantially, to the action of the Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor). Cowan (1984) suggested that it is the action of the wind rather than shrikes which is responsible. The most significant role in date palm dispersal has without doubt been played by man. Date fruits are generally easily stored and transported, and have therefore been an important component of the Middle Eastern diet, particularly for long journeys across the desert. The Phoenicians were not only early date palm cultivators but great travelling tradesmen and were certainly responsible in part for the early spread of date palms.
    Distribution
    The natural distribution of P. dactylifera is not known. The long history of date palm cultivation in the Middle East and North Africa has extended the distribution of the species far beyond its presumed original range, such that its area of origin remains a mystery. It is doubtful whether P. dactylifera still exists in the wild. Zohary & Spiegel-Roy (1975) claim that 'spontaneously-growing dates can be found throughout the range of date cultivation'. Many of these 'wild' date stands may represent long neglected palm groves or escapes from such groves. In some areas of the Near East date palms can be found occupying primary niches and could perhaps represent wild P. dactylifera (Zohary & Hopf 1988). CULTIVATION. Traditional areas of date palm cultivation have included the Middle East, Near East, North Africa, parts of north western India and Pakistan (Malik 1984). More recently, date palm cultivation has been established on a commercial level in California.
    [PW]
    Use
    Commercially P. dactylifera is one of the most important species in the family, after Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) and Elaeis guineensisJacq. (oil-palm). Date palms have been cultivated in the Middle East and northern Africa for at least 5,000 years (Zohary & Hopf 1988). For some communities practising subsistence agriculture, the date crop provides an essential subsidiary income. The primary use of date palms is, of course, their nutritious fruit which is eaten fresh, dried or processed as one of a wide-range of date products. Date seeds are used as cattle fodder (seeds ground up or soaked in water or sometimes sprouted first), or are occasionally ground as a coffee substitute or adulterant, or for ornamental purposes (as jewellery). Stems are tapped for the sweet sap (date 'honey') which can be drunk fresh, or processed as sugar or fermented into a highly intoxicating beverage, referred to as 'The Drink of Life' in cuneiform inscriptions of the ancient Egyptians (Tickholm & Drar 1950). Tapping interferes somewhat with fruit production, and the number of times a palm can be tapped is limited. In addition to the fruit, vegetative parts of the date palm are put to many and diverse uses including building materials (leaves, trunks), fencing (leaves, midribs), thatch (leaves), rope (leaf sheath, leaflet and midrib fibres), fuel (all vegetative parts, but especially leaf- bases); packaging, padding and protection (leaf sheath fibre). The terminal bud can be eaten as a sweet, tender vegetable, though rarely so because only non- productive palms would be felled for such a purpose. Cutting of the terminal bud leaves a cavity which fills with a thick, sweet refreshing fluid that is drunk fresh or fermented. The palm is important in several Christian, Jewish and Muslim festivals (Goor 1967; Nixon 1951; Popenoe 1924).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, Mozambique Channel I, New Caledonia, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sudan, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Western Australia, Western Sahara

    Phoenix dactylifera L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 16, 1982 Collenette, I.S. [3171], Saudi Arabia K000208710
    Philcox, D. [2269] K000208674
    Hooker [s.n.] K000208695
    Hooker [s.n.] K000208696
    Melville, R. [s.n.] K000208673
    Melville, R. [s.n.] K000208677
    Smith, A.R. [s.n.], Yemen K000731675
    Turner [s.n.] K000208675
    Leonard, J. [3697], Chad K000731674
    Simpson, N.D. [1826], Egypt K000208692
    Simpson, N.D. [5732], Egypt K000208694
    Kotschy [613], Egypt K000208690
    illegible [184] K000208689
    illegible [1755], Cyprus K000208693
    illegible [8096], Egypt K000208698
    Sieber [s.n.] K000208725
    Sieber [s.n.] K000208724
    Schimper, W. [250] K000208697
    Fernandez, J. [2863] K000208701
    Boulos, L. [20052], Egypt K000208705
    Boulos, L. [18436], Egypt K000208706
    Boulos, L. [18439], Egypt K000208707
    de Bunge, A. [1] K000208691
    Birch Wolfe, T. [s.n.], Algeria K000208722
    Birch Wolfe, T. [s.n.], Algeria K000208723
    Hayne, W.A. [s.n.] K000208699
    Meyers, F.S. [6985] K000208700
    Cambridge Expedition [18], Libya K000208726
    Hubbard [s.n.] K000208676
    Hall, T.K. [s.n.] K000208702
    Hall, T.K. [s.n.] K000208704
    American Colony, Jerusalem [2985], Palestine K000208703

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1188 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Gros-Balthazard, M. & al. (2017). The Discovery of Wild Date Palms in Oman Reveals a Complex Domestication History Involving Centers in the Middle East and Africa Current Biology 27: 1-8.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Raffaelli, M., Mosti, S. & Tardelli, M. (2006). Boswellia sacra Flueck. (Burseraceae) in the Hasik area (Eastern Dhofar, Oman) and a list of surrounding flora Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 245-251.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Grau, J. (2006). Palms of Chile: 1-203. Ediciones OIKOS Ltda., Santiago de Chile.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.C. Barrow, A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). 1998
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 8: 102.
    • Sp. Pl. 1188 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Raffaelli, M., Mosti, S. & Tardelli, M. (2006). Boswellia sacra Flueck. (Burseraceae) in the Hasik area (Eastern Dhofar, Oman) and a list of surrounding flora Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 245-251.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3:169 (1968).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 304 (1956).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 410 (1949).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 2: 223 (1908).
    • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 102 (1901), pro parte.
    • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 130 (1895).
    • Becc. in Malesia 3: 355 (1890).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1188 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0