1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Phoenix L.
      1. Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien

        This species is accepted, and its native range is China (Yunnan) to N. Indo-China.

    [PW]
    Conservation
    A naturally restricted distribution, habitat loss and a horticultural trade in wild-collected plants may mean that the wild populations of P. roebelenii merit 'vulnerable' status, but further studies are needed. Demand for P. roebelenii as an ornamental is mostly met through seeds and offshoots from cultivated plants. However, Barrow (1994) suggested that collection of mature palms from the wild poses an increasing threat.
    General Description
    Clustering palms (often solitary in cultivation), forming clumps with stemless plants suckering at base of taller stems. Stem 1 - 2 m (rarely 3 m) high, without sheaths to 10 cm in diam., erect or twisted, pale, becoming smooth with age, marked with diamond-shaped persistent leaf bases each with a central bump of remnant vascular tissue; stem base developed with a root boss; roots occasionally emerging from stem above ground level. Leaves arching, 1 - 1.5 (2) m long; pseudopetiole to c. 50 cm long; leaf sheath reddish-brown, fibrous; acanthophylls arranged singly or paired, c. 12 on each side of rachis, orange-green, to 8 cm long; leaflets regularly arranged, opposite, c. 25 - 50 on each side of rachis, linear, concolorous, deep green, often flaccid, to 40 x 1.2 cm; lamina with discontinuous white scurfy ramenta along abaxial veins and midrib, almost totally covering abaxial surface of unexpanded (sword) leaves. Staminate inflorescences pendulous; prophyll coriaceous, two-keeled, splitting once abaxially between keels, c. 30- 60 cm long; peduncle to 30 cm long; rachillae 7- 20 cm long. Staminate flowers with calyx a three-pointed cupule, 1.2 mm high, yellow- white; petals pale yellow-white with acuminate apices and with jagged margins, 7 - 8 x 2 - 2.5 mm; anthers 3.5 - 4 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences erect, arching as fruits ripen, up to 35 cm long; prophyll coriaceous, two-keeled, to 35 cm long x c. 5 cm wide, splitting once adaxially between keels to reveal inflorescence; peduncle green, to c. 30 x 3 cm; rachillae with bulbous bases, orange-green, occasionally branched to one order, subtended by papery bracts (c. 4 cm long). Pistillate flowers pale green, arranged in distal three quarters of rachilla, subtended by papery bracts to 5 mm long; calyx a three-pointed cupule, thickened and ridged up to apices, striate, 2 - 2.5 mm high; petals 3.5 x 4 mm with acute apices; generally only one carpel reaching maturity. Fruits obovoid, with persistent perianth, maturing from dark green to purplish brown, 13 - 18 x 6 - 7 mm; stigmatic remains apical, 1 mm long, orange- brown, often recurved. Seed narrowly elongate, terete, with rounded apices, 7 - 3 mm; embryo lateral opposite raphe; endosperm homogeneous.
    Vernacular
    THAILAND. Paam sipsong pannaa (Xishuangbanna palm), [Smitinand (1948)]. VIETNAM. Cha rang (Moyenne Region), [Magalon (1930)].
    Biology
    Closely associated with riverside or cliff habitats where it grows as a rheophyte. The rheophytic habit is rare within the palm family (Dransfield 1992). The clustering habit of R roebelenii may help it to survive flooding.
    Distribution
    Northern Laos (Nam Ou valley), Vietnam (Upper Black R. region near Lai-Chau), and southern China (Xisuangbanna region of Yunnan), most notably along the banks of the R. Mekong.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia.
    Habit
    Arbusto, palma solitaria
    [PW]
    Use
    Since its introduction to Europe, P. roebelenii has become a popular and widely cultivated ornamental palm and is now found in private and botanical gardens around the world.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China South-Central, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Zona, S. [711] 65063.000
    Barrow, S. [26], Thailand 65061.000
    s.coll. [s.n.], Thailand K000697831 holotype
    s.coll. [s.n.] 66880.000

    First published in Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 6: 475 (1889)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.C. Barrow, A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). 1998
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0