1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Phoenix L.
      1. Phoenix theophrasti Greuter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kriti to SW. Turkey.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Phoenix theophrasti is found in coastal areas, either on steep calcareous cliffs and rocks within a few metres of the sea, or somewhat inland along moist valley floors, stream banks and rocky gullies. Occurrence of the palms invariably indicates a water-source. Salt tolerance of the species enables it to survive combined pressures of exposure to coastal winds and sea water.
    Distribution
    The species was first described from Vai in Crete, and is now recorded from nine coastal localities on that island (Turland et al. 1993). Since 1982 (Boydak 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987; Boydak & Yaka 1983) the species has been recorded from the Data Peninsula and Kumluca-Kara6z regions of south western Anatolia in Turkey from sea-level to 350 m. A third locality for Phoenix in Turkey was recorded by Boydak & Barrow (1995) from Gölköy near Bodrum. The history of this population and its identity are unclear but I consider it most likely to be referrable to P. dactylifera.
    Vernacular
    Vaion (palm leaf), (Crete), [Barclay (1974)].
    General Description
    Clustering tree palm. Stem to 17 m tall, without leaf sheaths c. 50 cm in diam., with leaves persistent in upper trunk, otherwise with persistent, diamond-shaped leaf bases. Leaves obliquely vertical in orientation, c. 2 - 4 m long; leaf sheath fibrous, reddish-brown; pseudopetiole 50 - 70 cm long; acanthophylls irregularly arranged in more than one plane, to 10 on each side of rachis, yellow to orange-green; leaflets irregularly arranged in one to two planes of orientation, c. 65 - 100 on each side of rachis, stiff, to 50 x 2 cm; lamina concolorous, glaucous, surfaces often white with waxy coating. Staminate inflorescences erect; prophyll coriaceous, splitting twice between margins, c. 45 x 8 cm; peduncle to c. 40 cm long; rachillae to c. 10 cm long. Staminate flowers yellow-white, with strong musty scent; calyx cupule 2 - 3 mm high; petals 3 (rarely 4), 8 x 3.5 mm; stamens 6 (rarely 7). Pistillate inflorescences erect arching slightly with fruit maturity; prophyll to 50 x 6 cm; peduncle elongating on fruit set, to c. 70 cm; rachillae to c. 80 in number, elongating on fruit set, to c. 50 cm long. Pistillate flowers yellow-white, with 3-lobed calyx cupule 2 - 2.5 mm high; petals 3 (rarely 4), 2 x 3 mm. Fruit oblong, c. 15 x 10 mm, green-yellow to brown, with sparse, mealy, sweet mesocarp. Seed with rounded apices, 11 - 13 x 6 - 7 mm; embryo lateral opposite raphe; endosperm homogeneous.
    [PW]
    Use
    In Crete leaves of R theophrasti are used in Palm Sunday celebrations (Barclay 1974), just as leaves of P. dactylifera are used elsewhere.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    East Aegean Is., Kriti, Turkey

    Introduced into:

    Greece

    Phoenix theophrasti Greuter appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 9, 1978 Syaye, P.M. [PS/CR19], Greece K000208682
    Barclay [1802], Greece K000208680
    Barclay [1802], Greece K000208681
    Greuter, W. [7650], Greece K000208678 isotype
    Greuter, W. [7650], Greece K000208679 isotype
    Barrow, S. [38], Turkey 65055.000
    Barrow, S. [38], Turkey K000208708
    Barrow, S. [37], Turkey K000208716
    Barrow, S. [42], Turkey K000208713
    Barrow, S. [41], Turkey K000208715
    Boydak [s.n.], Turkey K000208714

    First published in Bauhinia 3: 243 (1967)

    Accepted by

    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2015). New floristic records in the Balkans: 26 Phytologia Balcanica 21: 53-91.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.C. Barrow, A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). 1998
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2015). New floristic records in the Balkans: 26 Phytologia Balcanica 21: 53-91.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0