1. Family: Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
    1. Genus: Passiflora L.
      1. Passiflora quadrangularis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Colombia to Brazil.

    [FTEA]

    Passifloraceae, W. J. J. O. de Wildem (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Climber to ± 15 m., perennial, glabrous throughout; stem stout, 4-angled, winged.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades entire, broadly ovate to elliptic, 9–20 by 6–15 cm., base rounded to subcordate, apex abruptly acute or shortly acuminate-mucronate; margin entire, pinninerved, membranous; petiole 2–5 cm.
    Glands
    Glands on petiole 3 pairs, wart-like; blade-glands absent.
    Stipules
    Stipules ovate or elliptic, 2–5 cm. long, acute to mucronate, narrowed at base, entire.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1-flowered, the peduncle (pedicel) 1.5–3 cm., inserted beside a simple tendril 10–20 cm.; bracts and bracteoles subovate, base cordate, apex acute-acuminate, 3–5.5 cm., entire, distinct, forming an involucre.
    Flowers
    Flowers 8–10 cm. in diameter, whitish or pinkish, corona threads purplish and pinkish banded and mottled.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium shallowly cup-shaped, ±1.5 cm. wide.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate to ovate-oblong, 3–4 cm., concave, cucullate, corniculate.
    Corolla
    Petals ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 3–4.5 cm., obtuse.
    Corona
    Corona composed of 5 series, outside 2 series of threads 3–5 cm., inward a series of tubercles and one of short threads, the innermost membranous, lacerate; operculum membranous, 4–6 mm. long, inward curved, denticulate; disk (limen) annular.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore 12–14 mm., thickened and provided with 2 annuli towards base (trochlea).
    Stamens
    Filaments ± flattened, 7–8 mm.; anthers ± 7 mm.
    Pistil
    Ovary ellipsoid-oblong, 8–10 mm., glabrous; styles 10–12 mm.
    Fruits
    Fruit oblong-ovoid, 20–30 cm. long, fleshy with thick rind, terete or 3-grooved.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, broadly obcordate or suborbicular, 7–10 mm.
    Habitat
    In East Africa ornamental and cultivated for the edible, flavoured fruits, quite often escaped
    Distribution
    tropical America, introduced in the tropics of the Old World K4 T3 U4
    [FZ]

    Passifloraceae, R. and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Strong, herbaceous, glabrous plant climbing by tendrils.
    Stem
    Stem stout, 4-angled, the angles conspicuously winged; internodes 12 cm. long or more.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 10–20 × 8–15 cm., broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, abruptly acuminate at apex, entire-margined, rounded, subtruncate or shallowly cordate at the base, penninerved, the midrib prominent but more so beneath, the principal lateral nerves 10–12 on each side, prominent beneath; petiole 2–5 cm. long, stout, canaliculate above, with 3 pairs of nearly sessile glands; stipules 2–3·5 × 1–2 cm., ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, entire or slightly serrulate at the margin, narrowed at base, thinly membranous.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils stout.
    Peduncles
    Peduncle 1·5–3 cm. long, 3-angled.
    Bracts
    Bracts 3–5·5 × 1·5–4 cm., cordate-ovate, acute, entire or serrulate towards the base, thin-membranous.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, 7·5–12·5 cm. in diam.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube campanulate; sepals 3–4 × 1·5–2·5 cm., ovate or ovate-oblong, concave, greenish or greenish-red outside, white, violet or pinkish inside.
    Corolla
    Petals 3–4·5 × 1–2 cm., oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, white or deeply pink-tinged.
    Corona
    Corona in 5 rows, the 2 outer ones consisting of filaments as long as or exceeding the sepals, terete, radiate, banded with reddish-purple and white at base, blue at middle, densely mottled with pinkish-blue in the upper 1/2, the third row tubercular, the tubercles deep reddish-purple, the fourth row filamentose, the filaments 1–1·5 mm. long, banded with reddish-purple and white, the fifth row 3–7 mm. long, membranous, unequally lacerate.
    Operculum
    Operculum 4–6 mm. long, membranous, denticulate, white, reddish-purple at the margin.
    Limen
    Limen annular, fleshy.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid.
    Fruits
    Fruit 20–30 × 12–15 cm., oblong-ovoid, cylindrical or longitudinally 3-grooved.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–10 × 5–8·5 mm., broadly obcordate or suborbicular, flattened, reticulate at the centre of each face, striate at the margin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia

    Introduced into:

    Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gabon, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Passiflora quadrangularis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    22032.000
    Peru K000643868
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000036546 Unknown type material
    22216.000

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1248 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Killip in Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. 19 : 335 (1938).
    • L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 : 1248 (1759).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0