1. Family: Pedaliaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Sesamum L.
      1. Sesamum indicum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent.

    [FWTA]

    Pedaliaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect, simple or branched, herb, 1-6 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers whitish or pink and purple-tinged and spotted
    Note
    Cultivated.
    Vernacular
    Beniseed.
    [FTEA]

    Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Erect annual herb, 10–120 (rarely 180) cm. high, simple or branched.
    Stem
    Stems obtusely quadrangular, sulcate, finely pubescent to glabrescent, rarely pilose, usually more or less glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable, often heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; lower leaves long-petiolate (3–11 cm.), ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-lobed, 3-partite or 3-foliolate, 4–20 cm. long, 2–10 cm. broad, rounded or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex; margins often dentate; upper leaves more shortly petiolate (0.5–3 cm.), narrower, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire, and narrowly cuneate at the base (Fig. 7/4); all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, becoming glabrescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent; lobes oblong, pubescent, 2–5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.
    Stamens
    Filaments glabrous:anthers 2–3 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary slightly compressed, 1–1.5 mm. long, more or less rounded at the apex, pilose.
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong-quadrangular, slightly compressed, deeply 4-grooved, rounded at the base and apex, then rather abruptly and shortly beaked at the apex, 1.5–3.2 cm. long (including the beak), 6–7 mm. broad, glandular and pubescent; beak 2–4 mm. or rarely shorter (Fig. 7/5–7).
    Seeds
    Seeds (Fig. 7/8) more or less horizontal in the capsule, not winged, 2.5–3 mm. long, about 1.5 mm. broad, black, brown or white, with faces smooth or rarely slightly veined, never rugulose or reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 7/4–8.
    Habitat
    Not indigenous in East Africa; usually found in native gardens, grassland and by roadsides, on sandy soil; 10-2500 m.
    Distribution
    Cultivated in Europe, Asia, Africa and parts of Mexico and Cubanative of parts of India and Africa K3 K5 K7 P T2 T4 T6 T7 U
    [FZ]

    Pedaliaceae, H. D. Ihlenfeldt. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Erect annual herb, 10–120 cm. high; stem simple or branched, obtusely quadrangular, finely pubescent to glabrescent, more or less glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable in shape, usually heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; the inferior long-petiolate (petiole 3–11 cm. long), lanceolate to ovate, 3-lobed, 3–partite or 3-foliate, 4–20 x 2–10 cm., cuneate or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, margins often serrate; superior leaves more shortly petiolate (petiole 3–5 cm. long), narrowed, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire and narrowly cuneate at the base; all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, glabrescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent.
    Corolla
    Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule narrowly oblong in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rounded at the base, 1.5–3.0 x 0.6–0.7 cm.; beak broad and short; walls of the capsule often not smooth, but covered with horizontal stripes (impressions of the seeds) (TAB. 23 fig. 6).
    Seeds
    Seeds more or less horizontal, not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe (TAB. 25 fig. 6); testa smooth, rarely slightly venose, black, brown or white when mature.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, India, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Peru, Philippines, Qinghai, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sesamum indicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5086], Central African Republic K000731976
    Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5082], Central African Republic K000731978
    May 22, 1975 Wallich [6408], India K000884564
    Aug 22, 1964 Letouzey, R. [6369], Cameroon K000731974
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9094], Tanzania 24151.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9701], Tanzania 24152.000
    Gossweiler, J. [8402], Angola K001008698
    Gossweiler, J. [8413], Angola K001008699
    Welwitsch [164?], Angola K001008701
    Wellman, F.C. [1778], Angola K001008700
    Wallich, N. [6408], India K000884565
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6408], Myanmar K001123825
    Brunt, M.A. [439 a], Cameroon K000029013
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123818
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123819
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123820
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123821
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123822
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123823
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123824
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123826
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123827
    Hodd, K.T.B. [37], India K000731963
    Sep 24, 2005 Ninan, C.A. [5], Kerala Sesamum malabaricum K000884222 epitype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 634 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bedigian, D. (2015). Systematics and evolution in Sesamum (Pedaliaceae), part 1: evidence regarding the origin of sesame and its closest relatives Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 70: 1-42.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1998). Scrophulariaceae through Gesneriaceae Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 1-118. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Bruce, E.A. (1953). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Pedaliaceae: 1-21.

    Not accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Sesamum orientale.]
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden. [Cited as Sesamum orientale.]

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 67.
    • F.T.E.A., Pedaliac. 17, fig. 7, 4-8
    • Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4: 217
    • Chev. Bot. 488, 489 (incl. vars.)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 558
    • Sp. Pl. 634 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bedigian, D. (2015). Systematics and evolution in Sesamum (Pedaliaceae), part 1: evidence regarding the origin of sesame and its closest relatives Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 70: 1-42.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1998). Scrophulariaceae through Gesneriaceae Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 2: 253 (1947).
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 243 (1931).
    • Gilg in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 291 (1911).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2): 558 (1906).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C.: 365 (1895).
    • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1, 634 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0