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This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent.

[FWTA]

Pedaliaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect, simple or branched, herb, 1-6 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers whitish or pink and purple-tinged and spotted
Note
Cultivated.
Vernacular
Beniseed.

[FTEA]

Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb, 10–120 (rarely 180) cm. high, simple or branched.
Morphology Stem
Stems obtusely quadrangular, sulcate, finely pubescent to glabrescent, rarely pilose, usually more or less glandular.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable, often heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; lower leaves long-petiolate (3–11 cm.), ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-lobed, 3-partite or 3-foliolate, 4–20 cm. long, 2–10 cm. broad, rounded or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex; margins often dentate; upper leaves more shortly petiolate (0.5–3 cm.), narrower, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire, and narrowly cuneate at the base (Fig. 7/4); all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, becoming glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx persistent; lobes oblong, pubescent, 2–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments glabrous:anthers 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary slightly compressed, 1–1.5 mm. long, more or less rounded at the apex, pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong-quadrangular, slightly compressed, deeply 4-grooved, rounded at the base and apex, then rather abruptly and shortly beaked at the apex, 1.5–3.2 cm. long (including the beak), 6–7 mm. broad, glandular and pubescent; beak 2–4 mm. or rarely shorter (Fig. 7/5–7).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds (Fig. 7/8) more or less horizontal in the capsule, not winged, 2.5–3 mm. long, about 1.5 mm. broad, black, brown or white, with faces smooth or rarely slightly veined, never rugulose or reticulate.
Figures
Fig. 7/4–8.
Habitat
Not indigenous in East Africa; usually found in native gardens, grassland and by roadsides, on sandy soil; 10-2500 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Europe, Asia, Africa and parts of Mexico and Cubanative of parts of India and Africa K3 K5 K7 P T2 T4 T6 T7 U

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb, 10–120 cm high; stem simple or branched, obtusely 4-angled, finely pubescent to glabrescent, ± glandular
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable in shape, opposite or alternate, thinly pubescent, ± glandular and glabrescent; lower leaves with petiole 3–11 cm long, 3-lobed, 3-partite or 3-foliolate, 4–20 x 2–10 cm, margins often serrate; upper leaves with petiole 0.5–3 cm long, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm wide, usually entire and cuneate at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings, 1.5–3.3 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules oblong in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rounded at the base, 1.5–3 x 0.6–0.7 cm, with a broad and short beak; walls of the capsules often with horizontal stripes (impressions of the seeds)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± horizontal, not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe; testa smooth, rarely slightly venose, black, brown or white when mature.
Distribution
Grown as a crop plant at least in S3 cultivated for its oil-yielding seeds in most tropical and subtropical countries and widely naturalised.
Vernacular
Semsim, simsim (Arabic); sinsim, sisim, sisin (Somali).
Note
S. radiatum Schumach. is similar in habit, but has not yet been recorded from Somalia. It is locally grown in many parts of tropical Africa and can easily be distinguished by the seeds with radial sculptures on both faces.

[FZ]

Pedaliaceae, H. D. Ihlenfeldt. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb, 10–120 cm. high; stem simple or branched, obtusely quadrangular, finely pubescent to glabrescent, more or less glandular.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable in shape, usually heteromorphic, opposite or alternate; the inferior long-petiolate (petiole 3–11 cm. long), lanceolate to ovate, 3-lobed, 3–partite or 3-foliate, 4–20 x 2–10 cm., cuneate or obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, margins often serrate; superior leaves more shortly petiolate (petiole 3–5 cm. long), narrowed, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 cm. broad, usually entire and narrowly cuneate at the base; all leaves thinly pubescent and more or less glandular, glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white, pink or mauve-pink with darker markings.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 1.5–3.3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule narrowly oblong in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rounded at the base, 1.5–3.0 x 0.6–0.7 cm.; beak broad and short; walls of the capsule often not smooth, but covered with horizontal stripes (impressions of the seeds) (TAB. 23 fig. 6).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds more or less horizontal, not winged but with an inconspicuous double fringe (TAB. 25 fig. 6); testa smooth, rarely slightly venose, black, brown or white when mature.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 150 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto

>

[FSOM]
Use
Sesame meal is an excellent source of protein and is also rich in vitamin E. The antioxidants sesamin and sesamolin, extracted from the oil, are often used to stabilise antiseptics, bactericides and viricides The antioxidants sesamin and sesamolin, extracted from the oil, show synergistic activities with certain insecticides, such as rotenone and pyrethrin. Though the average yield, compared to other oil-crops, is rather low, it is much esteemed due to the high quality and stability against rancidity of the oil, its ability to thrive on soils poor in nutrients and to easily adapt to drought stress. The oil is mostly employed for cooking and in the manufacture of margarine The oil is also used as an emollient and in the manufacture of soap and cosmetics.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, India, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Jersey, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Sesamum indicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2009 Asik Manter [130100], Sabah K000611042
Sep 1, 2009 Munting Eja [56011], Sarawak K000611058
Jan 1, 2008 Garcia, H.G. et al. [PPI 15297], Philippines K000224741
Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5082], Central African Republic K000731978
Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5086], Central African Republic K000731976
May 22, 1975 Wallich [6408], India K000884564
Aug 22, 1964 Letouzey, R. [6369], Cameroon K000731974
Milne-Redhead, E. [9094], Tanzania 24151.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [9701], Tanzania 24152.000
Wallich, N. [6408], India K000884565
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123822
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123823
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123826
Wellman, F.C. [1778], Angola K001008700
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123819
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123827
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6408], Myanmar K001123825
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123818
Brunt, M.A. [439 a], Cameroon K000029013
Welwitsch [164?], Angola K001008701
Gossweiler, J. [8402], Angola K001008698
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123820
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123824
Gossweiler, J. [8413], Angola K001008699
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6408] K001123821
Hodd, K.T.B. [37], India K000731963
Mar 23, 2006 McDonald [4570], Indonesia Sesamum orientale K000223855
Indonesia Sesamum orientale K000223855
Sep 24, 2005 Ninan, C.A. [5], Kerala Sesamum malabaricum K000884222 epitype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 634 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bedigian, D. (2015). Systematics and evolution in Sesamum (Pedaliaceae), part 1: evidence regarding the origin of sesame and its closest relatives Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 70: 1-42.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Bruce, E.A. (1953). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Pedaliaceae: 1-21.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 1-118. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sinha, G.P. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora of Mizoram 2: 1-649. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) (1998). Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Not accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Sesamum orientale.]
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden. [Cited as Sesamum orientale.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 67.
  • Chev. Bot. 488, 489 (incl. vars.)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 558
  • F.T.E.A., Pedaliac. 17, fig. 7, 4-8
  • Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4: 217
  • Sp. Pl. 634 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bedigian, D. (2015). Systematics and evolution in Sesamum (Pedaliaceae), part 1: evidence regarding the origin of sesame and its closest relatives Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 70: 1-42.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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