1. Family: Piperaceae Giseke
    1. Genus: Piper L.
      1. Piper betle L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indo-China to Malesia.

    [FTEA]

    Piperaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Climbing shrub with glabrous stems producing adventitious roots at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate or rounded ovate, 8–18 cm. long, 6–10 cm. wide, narrowly and sharply acuminate at the apex, cordate or subcordate and mostly asymmetric at the base, petiole 2–4 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes cream, 2 cm. long; stamens 2; stigmas 4–5; bracts rounded to obovate, sessile, central.
    Fruits
    Fruits sessile, often coalescing.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cambodia, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Christmas I., Cuba, East Himalaya, Fiji, India, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Maldives, Marianas, Mauritius, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Réunion, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Piper betle L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6652], Myanmar K001124422
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6652] K001124420
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6652] K001124421
    Silva, F.de [6652], Bangladesh K000794401
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6652] K001124419
    s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842570
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124381
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124378
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642], India Piper malamiris K001124379
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124380
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124382
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642], India Piper malamiris K001124383
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124384
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642], India Piper malamiris K001124385
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124386
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6642] Piper malamiris K001124387
    Blume, C.L. [s.n.], Jawa Piper blumei K000794883
    Korthals, P.W. [s.n.], Indonesia Piper blumei K000794882
    Forster, G. [s.n.], New Caledonia Piper siriboa K000351900 Unknown type material

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2013). Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species Blumea 57: 275-294.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Suwanphakdee, C. & Chantaranothai, P. (2011). A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand Blumea 56: 235-239.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2010). Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon islands: the climbing species Blumea 55: 4-13.
    • Das, A.P., Samanta, A.K. & Biswas, K. (2010). A census of Piper L. (Piperaceae) in Terai, Duars and the hills of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas Pleione 4: 33-41.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of China 4: 1-453. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1998). Flore des Mascareignes 149-152: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • J. H. Holland, The Useful Plants of Nigeria, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series IX, 4: 552
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Gardner, R.O. (2013). Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species Blumea 57: 275-294.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Suwanphakdee, C. & Chantaranothai, P. (2011). A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand Blumea 56: 235-239.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2010). Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon islands: the climbing species Blumea 55: 4-13.
    • Das, A.P., Samanta, A.K. & Biswas, K. (2010). A census of Piper L. (Piperaceae) in Terai, Duars and the hills of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas Pleione 4: 33-41.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of China 4: 1-453. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1998). Flore des Mascareignes 149-152: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Stutz, L.-C. (1982). Herborisation 1981 aux îles Maldives Candollea 37: 599-631.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0