Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Pakistan and Arabian Peninsula Sahara to Tanzania.
Plantago afra

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual, 2–15(–25) cm tall, stem distinct, erect or ascending, elongated and branched or branched at base, glandular, hirsute and pubescent or short-pilose; internodes (2–)3– 6(–7) cm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, with fascicles in axils hence appearing whorled, narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate, 10–40(–50) × (0.5–)1–2 mm, entire or bidentate, flat or with somewhat recurved edges, short-pilose, hirsute or pubescent, ± glandular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spike round ellipsoid or shortly ovoid-subglobose, (3–)6–20 mm long; bract of lower flowers ovate lanceolate, long- or short-acuminate, 3–5 mm, or with long point up to 8 mm long, midrib herbaceous, gradually narrowed to a point, lateral lamina distinct in base of bract, but bracts of the upper flowers of spike lanceolate, short-acuminate or acute, 3–4 mm long, short-pilose or hispid, pubescent or not, margins ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 3–3.5(–4) mm, midrib distinct, herbaceous, lateral lamina scarious, sparsely short pilose, pubescent or not, margins ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla lobes narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm, acute, glabrous; corolla tube glabrous, 3.5–5 mm, rugulose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers slightly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong-subglobose, 2-locular, each locule 1-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds cymbiform, glabrous.
Ecology
Cultivated and waste ground, fallow fields on silty or sandy soils, stony and gravelly hillsides, in between rocks on mountains and on gravelly banks near river and in wooded hillside and gullies; alt. 10–550 m
Phenology
Feb.–Jun.
Distribution
Frequent in Upper Plains and Foothills Region, less frequent in the Lower Mesopotamian Region and Desert Plateau Region; also found in the Mountain Region. Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Palestine, Syria, Turkey, Mediterranean Islands to Iran, E of India and Middle Asia; introduced into C Europe and N America.

[FTEA]

Plantaginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb 15-50 cm. tall, erect or ascending; stems with a mixture of rigid hairs and minute glandular hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, linear to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-6 cm. long, 1-5 mm. wide, entire or with a few teeth, narrowed at both ends, glabrescent or with short and long hairs mixed, sometimes villous near the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences borne in upper leaf-axils, the spikes small, (0.5-)0.8-l.5 cm. long; peduncles 1-5 cm. long; bracts ovate or narrowly ovate, 3.5-5 mm. long, drawn out into a long acumen at the apex, altogether ± 8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3-4 mm. long, hairy and glandular, the posticous pair narrowly ovate to broadly oblanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla cream to yellow, ± 4 mm. long; lobes ovate, 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ellipsoid or rounded-ellipsoid, 3-3.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reddish-brown, shining, oblong-ellipsoid, 2-3.25(-4) mm. long, convex on dorsal surface, concave-sulcate on hilar surface.
Figures
Fig. 1/10, p. 3.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Bolivia, Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Great Britain

Plantago afra L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 168 (1762)

Accepted by

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Bergmeier, E., Blockeel, T., Böhling, N., Fournaraki, C., Gotsiou, P., Jahn, R., Lansdown, R. & Turland, N. (2011). An inventory of the vascular plants and bryophytes of Gavdopoula island (S Aegean, Greece) and its phytogeographical significance Willdenowia 41: 179-189.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Dogignard, A. (2009). Contributions à la connaissance de la flore du Maroc et de l'Afrique du Nord. Nouvelle série. 2. La flore du Nord-Maroc Le Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France 46-47: 1-136.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Patzelt, A. & al. (2020). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXIV. Sixty new records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 77: 413-437.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 21 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 131-157.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4: 691 (1879);
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 3: 113 (2002).
  • Collenette, Wildflow. Saudi Ariabia: 601 (1999);
  • Kazmi in Fl. Pak. 62: 19 (1974);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 168 (1762);
  • Pilger in Engl., Pflanzenr. 102 (IV. 269): 422 (1937);
  • Tutel in Fl. Turk. 7: 519 (1982);
  • Verdc., FTEA Plantag.: 6 (1971);
  • Verdc., Kew Bull. 23: 509 (1969)
  • Zohary pl. 389 (1977);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 3: 231 (1978)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Dogignard, A. (2009). Contributions à la connaissance de la flore du Maroc et de l'Afrique du Nord. Nouvelle série. 2. La flore du Nord-Maroc Le Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France 46-47: 1-136.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Patzak, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1965). Flora Iranica 15: 1-23. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Patzelt, A. & al. (2020). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXIV. Sixty new records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 77: 413-437.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Grande in N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. ser., 32: 76 (1925).
  • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 168 (1762).

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/