1. Family: Polygonaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Fagopyrum Mill.
      1. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Tibet to China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Asia.
    Habit
    Annual erect herb
    Stem
    Stem c. 60 cm tall, glabrous or ± hairy
    Leaves
    Leaf lamina 4–10 × 2–10 cm, broadly triangular-cordate, acute at the apex, cordate at the base with acute or rounded lobes, entire or sinuate at the margin, dark green, the lower ones long petiolate, the upper sessile; petiole up to 8 cm long, striately furrowed
    Ocrea
    Ocrea 3–5 mm long, striate
    Flowers
    Flowers in bracteate corymbiform clusters, arranged in shortly pedunculate terminal and axillary raceme-like panicles; bracts 2–3 mm long, lanceolate, membranous; pedicels 2–3 mm long
    Perianth
    Perianth segments greenish-white and tipped with pink, 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, oblong to oblanceolate
    Stamens
    Stamens 7–8; filaments 1–5 mm long, filiform; anthers pinkish, 0.4–0.5 × 0.35–0.45 mm, broadly ovoid
    Ovary
    Ovary 3–4 mm long; styles 3, c. 0.25 mm long; stigmas very small, capitate
    Fruits
    Nut dark brown or grey, dull at maturity, 5–7.5 mm long, ovoid, sharply trigonous, with smooth faces and acute to narrowly keeled entire to slightly serrate angles
    Seeds
    Seed similar in shape and size to the nut.
    Ecology
    Cultivated, and sometimes an introduced weed growing in damp soil on roadsides; 1000–1300 m.
    Note
    F. esculentum (common buckwheat) was formerly cultivated mainly as a corn substitute and animal food (see Burtt Davy, loc. cit. (1926)), but with the reduction in its cultivation has become a less frequent weed.
    Distribution
    Mozambique Native of central and east Asia, cultivated and naturalized in temperate and subtropical Asia, central and southern Europe, North America and parts of tropical and South Africa. Zimbabwe ZAM N, ZAM W, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, MOZ N Zambia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China South-Central, Tibet

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Turkey, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Fagopyrum esculentum Moench appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Strachey, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], India Polygonum fagopyrum K001132910
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1687], Nepal Polygonum fagopyrum K001113859
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1687] Polygonum fagopyrum K001113860
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1687], India Polygonum fagopyrum K001113861
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1688] Polygonum emarginatum K001113862
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1688], India Polygonum emarginatum K001113863

    First published in Methodus: 290 (1794)

    Accepted by

    • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
    • Del Guacchio, E. (2015). Integrazioni, aggiornamenti e note alla flora esotica della Campania Informatore Botanico Italiano 47: 147-154.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919. [Cited as Fagopyrum sagittatum.]

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 25 (1958). TAB. 1.
    • F.C.B. 1: 423 (1948).
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 1: 167 (1926).
    • Methodus Pl.: 290 (1794).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/