1. Family: Polygonaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Oxygonum Burch. ex Campd.
      1. Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Ethiopia.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic.lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long.
    Ocrea
    Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers Male flowers not seen Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering. Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Male flowers not seen.
    Style
    Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases
    Fruits
    Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles. Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles.
    Ecology
    Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
    Note
    This species may be confused with O. stuhlmannii and O. atriplicifolium. O sinuatum is an annual while O. stuhlmannii is a perennial herb; in O. atriplicifolium the flowers are strongly heterostylous and the pedicels are filiform and reflexed in fruit while in O. sinuatum the pedicels are stout, c. 5 mm long and ± erect or spreading in fruit.
    Distribution
    Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Botswana Caprivi Strip Zambia BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM B, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ GI, MOZ M Widespread in tropical eastern Africa from Sudan and Ethiopia southwards to Namibia and South Africa, also in Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola. Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
    Habit
    A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb. A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb
    Stem
    Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent. Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent
    Male
    Male flowers not seen.
    Hermaphrodite
    Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
    Filaments
    Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
    Pistil
    Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases.
    [FTEA]

    Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    A diffuse, decumbent or erect, weedy annual.
    Stem
    Stems glabrous to pubescent, green to reddish brown.
    Ocrea
    Ocreae reddish, up to 5.5 mm. long, truncate, usually fringed with setae, the leaf inserted in the upper half and often near the apex.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, in outline ovate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, but usually deeply incised with rounded or acute lobes, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, commonly 4 × 1.5 cm., but up to 6 × 2.7 cm., usually pustular on the undersurface, otherwise glabrous or shortly pilose on the veins.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1–2 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence variably elongated, up to 28 cm. long (or more?), the stalk up to 2 mm. thick.
    Bracts
    Bracts up to 6 cm. apart, fringed with setae.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stumpy, scarcely filiform, exceeding the bracts by 0–1 (–3) mm.; those of male flowers ± filiform, withering.
    Flowers
    Flowers white or pink, slightly heterostylous, i.e. long-styled stigmas reaching only to the tips of the anthers or to slightly beyond, and short-styled stigmas reaching to or nearly to the anther bases (see Fig. 5/9).
    Tepal
    Tepals ovate-elliptic, 2.5–3 mm. long; tube 1–1.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit fusiform, (1–) 2–4 to each bract, erect or spreading but scarcely pendulous, 5.0–6.5 mm. long when mature, pubescent or papillose, more rarely glabrous, with three spreading prickles 1.5–1.75 (–2) mm. long arising on the angles centrally or more often from just below the middle (rarely with 3 smaller, intervening prickles on the faces).
    Habitat
    Cultivated and other ground suited to weed growth; 0–2100 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 eastern Africa from Sudan southwards,

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cape Verde, India, Mauritius

    Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1987 Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244040 isotype
    Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [117], Eritrea K000244042 isotype
    Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [94], Eritrea K000244043
    Milne-Redhead, E. [11305], Tanzania 21945.000
    Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244041 isotype

    First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(1a): 30 (1892)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Banda & Morris, Common Weeds Malawi: 112, fig. (1986). TAB. 8, fig. A.
    • Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 23: 4 (1969).
    • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 34 (1958).
    • Kew Bull. 12: 159 (1957)
    • F.C.B. 1: 406, t. 39 (1948).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 163 (1944)
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 1: 167 (1926).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 170 (1895).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • (2019). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23818107.2019.1652848 epublication.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Robyns, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 406 (1948).
    • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 170 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/