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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton hirtus L'Hér.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical Argentina.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1800 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Herb, to 2 ft. high
    Note
    An introduced weed.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious annual herb up to 45 cm. high, commonly with a single stem which is 3-branched about halfway up, the branches then themselves 3- or else 2-branched.
    Stem
    Stems stiffly stellate-hispid, the stellate hairs with one ray much larger than the others.
    Leaves
    Leaves whorled, opposite or alternate; petiole 4–9 mm. long, densely to evenly stellate-hirsute; blade ovate, 2–5 cm. long, 1–3 cm. wide, acute or subacute, cuneate or ± rounded, with 2 stipitate discoid basal glands at the apex of the petiole, bicrenate-biserrate, membranaceous, 5-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 3–6 pairs, sparingly ± simply hirsute on the upper surface, but stellate-hirsute along the midrib and main nerves above, evenly stellate-hirsute beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, 3–5 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, 1.5–2.5 cm. long, the lower half ♀, the upper half ♂; axis evenly stellate-pubescent; bracts linear, 2–3 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent and often also with long gland-tipped branched or unbranched hairs at the base.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long, pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, elliptic-ovate, 1 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, with an apical tuft of hairs; petals 5, linear-oblong, 1 mm. long, sparingly pubescent, white; disc-glands free, obovoid; stamens 10, filaments 1.5 mm. long, subglabrous, anthers 0.3 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, unequal, oblong-linear, 2–4 mm. long, 0.5–0.7 mm. wide, obtuse, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, slightly accrescent; petals 0; disc ± pentagonal, very flat; ovary subglobose-subtrilobate, 1 mm. long, 1 mm. diameter, sparingly stellate-pubescent; styles 3, shortly united at the base, 1.5 mm. long, ± erect, sparingly pubescent, bifid almost to the base, the lobes filiform. Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long, pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, elliptic-ovate, 1 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, with an apical tuft of hairs; petals 5, linear-oblong, 1 mm. long, sparingly pubescent, white; disc-glands free, obovoid; stamens 10, filaments 1.5 mm. long, subglabrous, anthers 0.3 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, unequal, oblong-linear, 2–4 mm. long, 0.5–0.7 mm. wide, obtuse, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, slightly accrescent; petals 0; disc ± pentagonal, very flat; ovary subglobose-subtrilobate, 1 mm. long, 1 mm. diameter, sparingly stellate-pubescent; styles 3, shortly united at the base, 1.5 mm. long, ± erect, sparingly pubescent, bifid almost to the base, the lobes filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobate-subglobose, 3 mm. long, 3 mm. diameter, septicidal, sparingly stellate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds somewhat compressed-ovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 2–2.5 mm. wide, grey or brownish mottled, minutely reticulate-rugulose, shiny, with a small caruncle.
    Habitat
    Waste ground; near sea-level to 50 m.
    Distribution
    native to the W. Indies and C. and S. America from Mexico to N. Argentinaintroduced into W. Africa (Sierra Leone) in 1945, now also in Liberia, Ivory Coast and Zairefirst recorded from East Africa in 1971 T6

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Chagos Archipelago, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Liberia, Malaya, New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton hirtus L'Hér. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2014 Wardi et al. [BOHK 433], Indonesia K000734663
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [4316], México State K000476598
    Hinton, G.B. [4463], México State K000476595
    Hinton, G.B. [4552], México State K000476596
    Hinton, G.B. [10574], Guerrero K000476597

    Bibliography

    First published in Stirp. Nov.: 17 (1785)

    Accepted by

    • Sordé, R.C. & al. (2019). Taxonomic synopsis of Croton section Geiseleria (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil, including description of a new species Phytotaxa 417: 1-105.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Ee, B.W. (2011). The contribution of Johann Friedrich Klotzsch in the taxonomy of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) and associated genera Willdenowia 41: 15-33.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Santos Silva, J., Ferreira de Sales, M. & Carneiro-Torres, D.S. (2009). O Gênero Croton (Euphorbiaceae) na microrregião do Valle do Ipanema, Pernambuco, Brasil Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 60: 879-901.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • van Ee, B.W. & Berry, P.E. (2009). A phylogenetic and taxonomic review of Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) on Jamaica including the description of Croton jamaicensis, a new species of section Eluteria Systematic Botany 34: 129-140.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Fawcett & Rendle Fl. Jamaica 4, 2: 285.
    • Stirp. Nov. 17, t. 9 (1784)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Santos Silva, J., Ferreira de Sales, M. & Carneiro-Torres, D.S. (2009). O Gênero Croton (Euphorbiaceae) na microrregião do Valle do Ipanema, Pernambuco, Brasil Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 60: 879-901.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Rossi Caruzo, M.B. & Cordeiro, I. (2007). Sinopse da tribo Crotoneae Dumort. (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Hoehnea 34: 571-585.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • L’Hér., Stirp. 17, t. 9 (1785).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/