1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea lanceata (Tul.) Summerh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Seychelles, Andaman Islands to W. Pacific.

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type
    Type: Seychelles, Mahe, s.a., PeruiUe 126 (not found); Praslin, Grand'Anse [4°19'30"S 55°41'50"E], 27 Sept. 1906, Dupont 17 (neotype, designated here: K! [K00036275]).
    Distribution
    Widely distributed along coasts from the Seychelles to the Fiji Islands, throughout South-East Asia from the Malay Peninsula to New Guinea.
    Ecology
    Mangroves, tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests; alt. 0 - 20 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC). Smythea lanceata has a very large distribution, with many specimens from many locations — including several very recent collections, and does not meet any criteria to justify threatened status.
    Phenology
    Collected in fruit and flower throughout the entire year.
    Note
    Smythea lanceata is recognised by its crustaceous, inflated, [narrow-]ovate, wingless fruit with an attenuate to acuminate apex, and is the only known species of the tribe with pocket domatia. Smythea lanceata is also recognised by the ±smooth nectary disks, as opposed to the distinctly papillose nectary disks of many of the other members of Smythea that had flowers available for study: S. bombaiensis, S. macrocarpa, S. velutina and S. oblongifolia. S. lanceata is most similar to S. poomae in having crustaceous, inflated, wingless fruit but differs in the 3 - 5 pairs of secondary veins, well­spaced along the primary vein, with especially the veins midway along sometimes separated by up to a third of the total lamina length, the conspicuous domatia and the ovate fruit with an even shape near the base and an attenuate to acuminate apex. Unfortunately, the type material of Tulasne has not been traced. Ventilago lanceata was described by Tulasne based on a collection by Perville who visited the Seychelles in the early 1840s. These collections were deposited in P, but we have been unable to locate the specimen in Paris (P.Lowry, pers. comm.), and, in addition, Stafleu & Cowan (1986: 530) note that Tulasne's types are at Fi but the specimen is not located there (Chiara Nepi, pers. comm.); in addition, the Harvard University Herbaria Botanist database lists Perville specimens at L and B, but no Rhamnaceae specimens from the Seychelles were found at either institute. It is interesting that in the first Flora of The Seychelles, Baker(1877: 11), twenty years after the first publication ofV. lanceata, noted that in writing the Flora, Kew had received some specimens from “the Paris Museum, the latter gathered by M. August Perville” but describes only Colubrina asiatica Brongn. from the Seychelles and does not mention Ventilago within the Flora account. On making the combination to Smythea, Summerhayes (1928) noted “there seems no doubt from the description [of V. lanceata] that Tulasne's species is identical [with S. dupontii and S. pacifica] ”. In his subsequent updated list of the flora of the Seychelles, Summerhayes (1931: 273) also cites Perville 126 but without an exclamation mark. Both of these statements indicate that he is following previous publications and had not seen the specimen himself. We have selected the Dupont 17 specimen as a neotype because it has flowers and young fruits, whereas the sheet of Horne376 is sterile; there can be no doubt as to the identity of the either of these specimens, but the latter one is less informative for identification purposes. Examination of Gaudichaud 111, the type of Ventilago cernua, show several characters that place it within the morphological range of Smythea lanceata. With the presence of pocket domatia, 3-5 pairs of secondary veins, which are sometimes separated by up to a third of total lamina length, and visible vein reticulations on both sides of the leaf, the specimen has the range of leaf characters of S. lanceata.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Caroline Is., Fiji, Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vanuatu

    Smythea lanceata (Tul.) Summerh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1971 Horne, J. [376], Seychelles K000325247
    Dupont, R. [17], Seychelles K000036275 Unknown type material
    Seemann, B. [79], Fiji K000681971
    Robinson, B. [1818], Indonesia Ventilago fasciculiflora K000681919

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 389 (1928)

    Accepted by

    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Summerhayes 1928: 389
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0