1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ziziphus Mill.
      1. Ziziphus mucronata Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Shrub or tree to 12 m. in height; branchlets glabrous or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina ovate to broadly ovate, 4–7·7 × 2·8–4·7 cm., apex obtuse to acute or often mucronate, margin serrulate, base subcordate, markedly asymmetric, 3-nerved from the base, glabrous, glabrescent to tomentose; petiole up to 7 mm. long, glabrescent to tomentose; stipules usually spinescent, usually one hooked and one straight at each node.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes glabrescent to tomentose, sessile or shortly pedunculate; pedicels (1) 2 (-5) mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals up to 2 mm. long, deltate.
    Corolla
    Petals cucullate with the limb ± 1 mm. in diam. and the claw 0·5 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments up to 2 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk 2 mm. in diam., 10-lobed.
    Pistil
    Ovary immersed in the disk; style shortly 2-fid, up to 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits globose, c. 1·5 cm. in diam.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed.
    Seedling
    In seedlings the leaves are small and the spinescent stipules well-developed.
    Spines
    Often an individual will show a tendency not to produce spines, but usually a few branches on the tree can be found with spinescent stipules.
    [FTEA]

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees to 15(–30) m. tall, armed with spinous stipules or rarely unarmed.
    Bark
    Bark of bole dark grey, smooth to rough to corrugated;slash-wood crimson, soft.
    Branches
    Year-old branches often zig-zag.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades ovate, (2–)3–6(–8) cm. long, (l.3–)2–3.5(–4.7) cm. wide, at base often markedly asymmetrical, rounded or rarely very shallowly cordate, acute, often acuminate or rarely obtuse, serrulate, 3-nerved from base, the nerves of the dull upper surface only slightly if at all impressed; petioles 2–7 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes (5–)10–15 mm. long, and about as thick, (3–)7–25-flowered; peduncles 1–3 mm. long; pedicels 1–3 mm. long in flower, 3–5 mm. long in fruit.
    Calyx
    Sepals 1.5–2 mm. long, spreading in flower.
    Corolla
    Petals 1–1.5 mm. long, spreading in flower.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-celled; stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 12–20 mm. thick, reddish or reddish brown at maturity.
    [FWTA]

    Rhamnaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An erect or scandent shrub (or, in other parts of Africa, a tree)
    Branches
    Dark reddish-brown branchlets
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-yellow.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Buffalo thorn, Shiny-leaf wait-a-bit

    Ziziphus mucronata Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 13, 2008 Crawford, F. [170], Namibia K000450362
    Ash [348], Ethiopia 6049.347
    Eyles, F. [8917], Zimbabwe 9807.000
    Choa [s.n.], Ethiopia K000036281 Unknown type material

    First published in Enum. Pl.: 251 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Johnston, M.C. (1972). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rhamnaceae: 1-40.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 359–361, t. 74, 5.
    • Chev. Bot. 136
    • F.T.A. 1: 380
    • Enum. Pl. Berol. 251 (1809)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Johnston, M.C. (1972). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rhamnaceae: 1-40.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R.B. Drummond in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 422 (1966).
    • R.B. Drummond in Bull. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 39: 57 (1965)
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 394 (1961).
    • Evrard in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 441 (1960).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 669 (1958).
    • Verdc, in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 27: 355 (1957).
    • Exell & Mendonça, Consp. Fl. Angol. 2: 28 (1956).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 328 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 470 (1949).
    • Hutch. & Bruce in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew (1941).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 255 (1895).
    • Hemsl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 380 (1868).
    • Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol.: 251 (1809).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/