1. Family: Rhizophoraceae Pers.
    1. Genus: Bruguiera Lam.
      1. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical & S. Africa to W. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Rhizophoraceae, John Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Glabrous tree up to 12 m. tall (nearer half this height in our area), bark reddish-brown.
    Leaves
    Leaves dark green; blade narrowly to broadly elliptic, 5–15 cm. long, subacuminate above to an acute apex, cuneate below to an acute base, petiole up to 3 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary; peduncles recurved, about 1 cm. long; buds narrowly ellipsoid, terete, c. 25 × 10 mm.
    Calyx
    Calyx pinkish-green to reddish-brown; tube 1–2 cm. long; lobes (10–) 12 (–15), linear, 1.8–2.0 cm. long, apex acute.
    Corolla
    Petals white, soon turning brown, about 1.5 cm. long, conduplicate below, bifid with a median seta, stiffly pubescent, especially below; lobes 3–3.5 mm. long, (bi- or) tri-ciliate apically.
    Stamens
    Anthers 4 mm. long, dorsifixed, mucronate above; filaments 6 or 8 mm. long (one shorter and one longer in each pair).
    Ovary
    Ovary 3-celled.
    Fruits
    Fruit turbinate, 2 cm. long.
    Seeds
    Hypocotyl up to 11 cm. long on tree, terete or only shallowly and bluntly longitudinally ridged, swollen ± uniformly throughout length.
    Figures
    Fig. 3.
    Habitat
    Intertidal mud-flats and estuaries; on the less exposed parts; sea level
    Distribution
    K5 P T3 T6 T8 Z Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar, South Africa and widely ranging to the East like Rhizophora mucronata but neither extending so far beyond the tropics nor so far into the Pacific Ocean (but see Note below)
    [FZ]

    Rhizophoraceae, A. R. Torre and A. E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Shrub or tree up to 7(15) m. high; branches terete, smooth with subcircular scars of the petioles of the fallen leaves and annular scars of the fallen stipules; bark fibrous, light brown, reddish-brown or grey.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina usually 6–12 x 2–6 cm., narrowly to broadly elliptic or sometimes obovate-elliptic; apex acute, subacute or shortly acuminate; margins somewhat revolute; base narrowed into the petiole, cuneate or subcuneate; midrib rather prominent below, lateral nerves slightly prominent above and just visible to obscure beneath; petiole usually 1–3 cm. long; stipules up to 4 x 1 cm., entire and involute, acute at the apex and truncate at the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, peduncles c. 1 cm. long, ± terete, arching; flower-buds c. 27 x 7 mm., narrowly ellipsoid, acute, strongly ribbed, glabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx pinkish-green to reddish-brown; calyx-tube 1–2 cm. long, obconical; calyx-lobes (10)12(14), 1·5–2 cm. long, triquetrous, narrow, very acute at the apex.
    Corolla
    Petals c. 1·5 cm. long, ± oblong, conduplicate and costate inside, 2-lobed at the apex (the sinus with a median seta c. 4 mm. long and the lobes c. 5 mm. long, obtuse, apically 2–3-fimbriate), white or cream, soon turning brown, sparsely hirsute at the margins and densely hirsute at the base, coriaceous.
    Stamens
    Stamens (20)24(28), paired, oppositipetalous; filaments 6 or 8 mm. long; anthers c. 6 mm. long, mucronate at the apex.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 4 mm. long, (2)3(4)-locular; style c. 20 mm. long, shortly (2)3(4)-lobed at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit a turbinate berry crowned by the calyx-lobes, unilocular, 1-seeded.
    Hypocotyl
    Hypocotyl up to 15 cm. long and 1·2 cm. in diameter while on the tree, only narrowing a little at both extremities, shallowly and bluntly longitudinally ridged.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Christmas I., Djibouti, Fiji, Gilbert Is., India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Introduced into:

    Florida

    Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 23, 2016 Johns, R.J. [12670], Papua New Guinea K001193617
    Jun 16, 2016 Johns, R.J. [12673], Papua New Guinea K001193615
    Aug 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM s.n. (B)], Bali K000734817
    Nov 4, 2009 Zahid, M.S. [35], Peninsular Malaysia K000576100
    Nov 23, 2004 Takeuchi, W. [14377], Papua New Guinea K000228071
    Nov 23, 2004 Takeuchi, W. [14377], Papua New Guinea K000350382
    Nov 1, 1958 illegible [s.n.] K000732738
    Nov 1, 1958 Zippelius, A. [s.n.], New Guinea K000732733 isotype
    Jan 1, 1852 Krauss [309], South Africa K000350087
    Jeffrey, C. [493], Seychelles 23320.000
    Powell, D.A. [637B], Christmas I. 44994.000
    Powell, D.A. [631B], Christmas I. 44995.000
    Dupuy, D.J. [CI 22], Christmas I. 61080.000
    Willis, F.R. [46], Indonesia 71473.000
    Drege, South Africa K000350086 syntype
    Drege, South Africa K000350088 Unknown type material
    Cooper, T. [1233], South Africa K000350085
    Cunningham, A. [56], New South Wales K000732730
    Cunningham, A. [55], New South Wales K000732731
    s.coll. [21], India K000732746
    s.coll. [31], India K000732750
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000732747
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000732748
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000732749
    Hill, F.L. [629a], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7255.000
    Hill, F.L. [656], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7285.000
    Hill, F.L. [631], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7300.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104121
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4874], Myanmar Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104120
    Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 4874], Bangladesh Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104119
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104114
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874], India Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104115
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874], India Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104116
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104117
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104118

    First published in Encycl. 4: 696 (1798)

    Accepted by

    • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 2: 1-511. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1970-1975). Flora of Thailand 2: 1-484. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1970-1975). Flora of Thailand 2: 1-484. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 471 (1949).
    • Lam., Encycl. Méth. Pl. de Bot. t. 397 (1797).
    • Lam., Encycl. Méth., Bot. 4: 696 (1796).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0