1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Terminalia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Trees usually small in our area but sometimes very tall elsewhere, or rarely shrubs, without scales or microscopic stalked glands.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area).
    Flowers
    Flowers usually hermaphrodite and male in the same inflorescence (rarely all hermaphrodite), usually in axillary spikes with male flowers towards the apex and hermaphrodite ones towards the base, rarely in terminal panicles; male flowers stalked, stalks resembling pedicels but corresponding to the lower receptacle with abortion of the ovary; hermaphrodite flowers sessile.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle divided into a lower part (lower receptacle surrounding the inferior ovary) and an upper part, often scarcely developed, expanding into a shallow cup terminating in the sepals (or calyx-lobes).
    Corolla
    Petals absent.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 10, exserted.
    Disc
    Disk intrastaminal.
    Style
    Style free, not expanded at the apex.
    Ovary
    Ovary completely inferior.
    Fruits
    Fruit (pseudocarp) very variable in size and shape but usually 2-winged in our area, usually with an at least partially sclerenchymatous endocarp.
    Seeds
    Cotyledons (when known) spirally convolute.
    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Trees or rarely shrubs, without scales or microscopic stalked glands
    Leaves
    Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but sometimes subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of thelamina or on the petiole (but not in native species)
    Flowers
    Flowers usually hermaphrodite and ♂ in the same inflorescence (rarely all hermaphrodite), usually in axillary spikes with ♂ flowers towards the apex and hermaphrodite ones towards the base, rarely in terminal panicles; ♂ flowers stalked, stalks resembling pedicels but corresponding to the lower receptacle with abortion of the ovary, hermaphrodite flowers sessile
    Receptacle
    Receptacle divided into a lower part (lower receptacle) and an upper part, often scarcely developed, expanding into a shallow cup terminating in the sepals
    Corolla
    Petals absent
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 10, exserted
    Disc
    Disk intrastaminal
    Pistil
    Ovary completely inferior; style free, not expanded at the apex
    Fruits
    Fruit very variable in size and shape but usually 2-winged in E. Africa, usually with at least partially sclerenchymatous endocarp
    Seeds
    Cotyledons (where known) spirally convolute.
    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Small or medium-sized trees or occasionally shrubs, without scales or stalked glands.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite, petiolate, entire, almost glabrous or hairy.
    Receptacle
    Upper receptacle campanulate, joined to the lower receptacle by a slender stalk-like region; lower receptacle somewhat flattened.
    Flowers
    Male flowers usually towards the base of the inflorescence, as in the hermaphrodite ones but with the ovary not developing and with a slender stalk replacing the lower receptacle (perhaps a true pedicel only towards the base); style present or vestigial. Hermaphrodite flowers: sepals deltate, little developed; petals (4)5, usually ± obovate; stamens (8)10, 2-seriate in our species; disk pilose with a short free margin; style not expanded at the apex. Flowers andromonoecious, hermaphrodite and male in the same inflorescence, (4)5-merous, pedicellate, in terminal and/or axillary or extra-axillary subcapitate racemes.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2–5-winged, often decurrent into the comparatively long slender stipe.
    Seeds
    Cotyledons (where known) unfolding spirally and borne above soil level.
    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Small or medium-sized trees or occasionally shrubs, without scales or stalked glands
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite, petiolate, almost glabrous or hairy
    Flowers
    Flowers andromonoecious (and ♂ in the same inflorescence), (4)5-merous, pedicellate, in terminal and/or axillary or extra-axillary subcapitate racemes Hermaphrodite flowers: sepals deltate, little developed; petals (4)5, usually somewhat obovate; stamens (8)10, 2-seriate in E. African species; disk pilose with a short free margin; style not expanded at the apex
    Receptacle
    Upper receptacle campanulate, joined to the lower by a slender stalk-like region; lower receptacle somewhat flattened
    Hermaphrodite
    Hermaphrodite flowers: sepals deltate, little developed; petals (4)5, usually somewhat obovate; stamens (8)10, 2-seriate in E. African species; disk pilose with a short free margin; style not expanded at the apex
    Inflorescences
    Male flowers: usually towards the base of the inflorescence, similar to the hermaphrodite flowers but with the ovary not developing and with a slender stalk replacing the lower receptacle (perhaps a true pedicel only towards the base); style present or vestigial
    Male
    Male flowers: usually towards the base of the inflorescence, similar to the hermaphrodite flowers but with the ovary not developing and with a slender stalk replacing the lower receptacle (perhaps a true pedicel only towards the base); style present or vestigial
    Fruits
    Fruit 2–5-winged, wings often decurrent into the comparatively long slender stipe
    Seeds
    Cotyledons (where known) unfolding spirally and borne above soil-level.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Laccadive Is., Mozambique Channel I, Netherlands Antilles, Seychelles, Taiwan

    Terminalia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11806], Cameroon K000460266
    Hughes, J. [297], Tanzania 36848.000
    Hughes, J. [298], Tanzania 36849.000
    Coode, M. [32580], New Guinea 35973.000
    Coode, M.J.E. [7962], Brunei 61311.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7418], India K001127317
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7418], India K001127318

    First published in Mant. Pl.: 21 (1767)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 415.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mant. Pl. Alt.: 21 (1767) nom. conserv.
    • Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 674 (err. 638) (1767)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Griffiths in J.L.S. 55: 818 (1959), nom. conserv. For full synonymy see Exell in J.B. 69: 125 (1931), excl. syn. Terminaliopsis Danguy.
    • Engl. & Diels in E.M. 4: 6 (1900)
    • Mant. Pl.: 21 (1767)
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 674 [err. 638] (1767)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0