Skip to main content
  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Mimulopsis Schweinf.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa..

    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Habit
    Erect shrubby herb, 2 m tall; stems densely glandular-pubescent on upper nodes Perennial or shrubby herbs, shrubs or small trees; stems quadrangular; cystoliths conspicuous
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole of stem-leaves 4–5 cm long; lamina of stem-leaves cordiform, ± 11 × 9 cm, apex cuspidate, base cordate with sinus ± 1.5 cm deep, margin grossly doubly dentate with teeth to 1 cm long, sparsely pubescent on both sides, densest along veins, with longer spreading hairs along midrib beneath Leaves opposiste, often with conspicuous “blisters” along veins beneath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence narrow, racemiform, with long branches from basal nodes, ± 12 cm long; flowers in 3-flowered cymes towards base of inflorescence, solitary upwards; bracts green and leafy towards base of inflorescence, bract like upwards, all persistent, with indumentum as leaves; branches and pedicels densely glandular-pubescent to tomentose (hairs to 2 mm long); pedicels to 3 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx glandular-pubescent all over (to within 1 mm of apex of lobes); dorsal lobe ± 17 mm long, ventral and lateral lobes ± 13 mm long; lobes filiform to linear, 0.2–0.5 mm wide, subacute. Corolla white (no notes on throat and patch on lower lip), with dense band of long hairs on lower lip, sparser on lateral lobes and absent on dorsal lobes, ± 17 mm long, cylindric tube ± 1 mm long, throat ± 8 mm long; lobes all similar, elliptic, ± 8 × 6 mm; papillate area on lower lip crescent shaped Calyx 5lobed, divided almost to the base into linear-lanceolate to narrowly spathulateligulate lobes, dorsal lobe slightly to distinctly longer and wider then the rest
    Filaments
    Free part of filaments 2–3 mm and fused free part ± 1 mm, glabrous; anthers 3–4 mm long, spur ± 1 mm
    Stigma
    Stigma ± 1.5 mm long, dorsal lobe absent. Stigma with dorsal lobe, absent or much reduced (rarely welldeveloped), ventral lobe linear
    Ovary
    Ovary with dense short stubby nonglandular hairs in apical 2/3, glabrous towards base Ovary with 6–8 ovules per locule.
    Fruits
    Capsule and seed not seen. Capsule 6–8-seeded, ellipsoid-obovoid, valves strongly sulcate; retinaculae strong, hooked
    Ecology
    Margins of wet montane forest; no altitude recorded
    Flowers
    Flowers in condensed racemiform to open panicles; bracts caducous or persistent; bracteoles 2, linear to narrowly ligulate, caducous or persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous on the outside, contorted in bud, subactinomorphic, basal cylindric part of tube usually very short, throat long and much expanded at the mouth, with illdefined herring-bones ventrally; lobes 5, two lateral in lower lip held horizontally to more or less vertically, similar to the two in upper lip, central in lower lip similar or longer and narrower, deflexed, with a papillate area above, throat with dense band of long stiff retrorse hairs on lower lip, this band becoming thinner on lateral and upper lip but often more or less continuous, also with longitudinal band from lower lip to base of tube
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted near base of throat, free part of filaments fused at base, below insertion forming two hairy ridges to base of tube; anthers 2-thecous, thecae oblong, glandular and often also hairy dorsally along connective, rounded at apex, outer theca of longer pair with long spur at base, other six thecae mucronate
    Style
    Style filiform, hairy but for apical few mm.
    Seeds
    Seed discoid, circular in outline, glabrous on faces, with dense hygroscopic hairs on rim
    Note
    About 15 species in tropical Africa and Madagascar. A very distinctive species known only from this one collection. It is clearly related to the M. alpinakilimandscharica complex. It differs most conspicuously in its very narrow sepals and small corolla with elliptic lobes.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 Range: Not known elsewhere
    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Habit
    Shrubby herbs; stems quadrangular; cystoliths conspicuous
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite
    Flowers
    Flowers in open much-branched panicles with long spreading branches; bracts leafy, persistent; bracteoles 2, linear to narrowly ligulate, caducous or persistent; pedicels straight or sharply bent or geniculate where attached to branch But the peculiar red flowers without long stiff hairs (obviously adapted to bird pollination) are strikingly different from anything seen in Mimulopsis
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, divided almost to the base into linear-lanceolate lobes, dorsal lobe longer than the rest but same width. Corolla straight or resupinate through backwards genuflexion of the pedicel, bright red to crimson or maroon, glabrous or puberulous on the outside, contorted in bud, subactinomorphic to distinctly 2-lipped, basal cylindric part of tube short or long, throat long, expanded at the mouth, with ill-defined herring-bones ventrally; lobes 5, the two in the upper lip and the two lateral in lower lip subequal, lateral in lower lip held vertically and together with two dorsal forming a “hood”, middle in lower lip spreading to deflexed, without a papillate area above, throat without ring of long stiff retrorse hairs. Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted near base of throat, held in the “hood” formed by the dorsal and lateral lobes; free part of filaments fused at base, below insertion forming two glabrous ridges to base of tube; anthers 2-thecous, thecae oblong, glabrous, rounded at apex, outer theca of longer pair with or without spur at base, other six thecae mucronate
    Ovary
    Ovary with 6–8 ovules per locule.
    Style
    Style filiform, hairy but for apical few mm.
    Stigma
    Stigma with dorsal lobe absent, ventral lobe linear
    Seeds
    Seed discoid, circular in outline, glabrous on faces, with dense hygroscopic hairs on rim
    Note
    Epiclastopelma is closely related to Mimulopsis and might with some justification be considered congeneric 3 species in Tanzania.
    Fruits
    Also the fruit is constantly 4-seeded as opposed to 6–8-seeded in Mimulopsis. Capsule 4-seeded, ellipsoid-obovoid, valves strongly sulcate; retinaculae strong, hooked

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Mimulopsis Schweinf. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Tweedie [894], Kenya 2909.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 677 (1868)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • —F.T.A. 5: 54.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • C.B. Clarke F.T.A. 5: 54 (1899)
    • G.P. 2: 1080 (1876)
    • Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 677 (1868)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0