1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Eleusine Gaertn.
      1. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; slender; 15-85 cm long. Culm-internodes elliptical in section. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled; outer margin hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.6-1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades conduplicate; 5-35 cm long; 2.5-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous (at raceme base). Racemes 1-10(-17); single (rarely), or digitate; unilateral; 3.5-15.5 cm long; 3-3.5 mm wide. Rhachis wingless; flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 1-2.3 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 1.8-2.9 mm long; 0.7-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 3 -veined (with subsidiaries in keel). Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate in profile; 2.1-3.6 mm long; membranous; 3 -veined (excluding subsidiaries). Lemma midvein with contiguous subsidiary veins (3-veined). Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.9-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; isodiametric; trigonous; concealed by floret; 1-1.3 mm long; black; striate.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Kriti, Leeward Is., Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

    Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 26, 2007 Heath, A. [888], Botswana K000731132
    Sep 1, 2005 Darbyshire, I. [320], Cameroon K000199950
    Jun 1, 2005 Barthelat, F. [1148], Mayotte K000731135
    Jun 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9029], Cameroon K000107853
    Jun 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3713], Cameroon K000107852
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1627], Cameroon K000107851
    Jan 7, 2000 Takeuchi, W. [14068], Papua New Guinea K000731001
    Jan 1, 1999 Holm-Nielsen, L.B. [21093], Ecuador K000731155
    Jun 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [8527], Cameroon K000339562
    Jun 1, 1998 Kamundi, D. [714], Cameroon K000339564
    May 1, 1998 Asongani, J.N. [1334], Cameroon K000339561
    Jan 1, 1998 Pollard, B.J. [48], Cameroon K000339563
    Feb 1, 1996 Alers, M.P.T. [28], Gabon K000731060
    Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9682], Cameroon K000540022
    Oct 1, 1993 Vidal, S. [1973], Philippines K000290390
    Jan 1, 1993 Carvalho [4094], Equatorial Guinea K000731040
    Jan 1, 1993 Carvalho [2104], Equatorial Guinea K000731057
    Jan 1, 1991 Solomon, J.C. [18900], Bolivia K000731160
    Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M. [4425], Central African Republic K000731056
    Jan 1, 1977 Carpenter, T. [300], Maldives K000782931
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [11276], Brazil K001075217
    Jan 1, 1972 Hodd, K.T.B. [250], India K000782925
    Mar 8, 1968 Nelson, D.J. [1204], Australia K000731011
    Mar 5, 1968 Nelson, D.J. [1042], Australia K000731012
    Dec 1, 1964 Stewart, R. R. [21343], India K000245129
    Jan 1, 1964 Irwin, H.S. [57670], Suriname K000731150
    Jan 1, 1964 Hutchinson, P.C. [3532], Peru K000731159
    Jan 1, 1964 Royen, P. [7580], Papua New Guinea K000782993
    Apr 1, 1963 Leeuwenberg, J.M. [1945], Côte d'Ivoire K000731046
    Jan 1, 1963 Hooper, M.D. [90], Sierra Leone K000731041
    Jan 1, 1963 Leeuwenberg, J.M. [4597], Liberia K000731042
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [506], Cameroon K000182160
    Jan 1, 1961 Steyermark, J.A. [824], Venezuela K000731152
    Mar 1, 1958 Naegele, A. [1708], Senegal K000731038
    Jan 1, 1956 Santapan [289], India K000782949
    Nov 4, 1950 de Haan, G.A.L. [1743], Indonesia K000782985
    Jul 1, 1936 Van Leeuwen, W.M.. [10583], Papua New Guinea K000782995
    Feb 11, 1935 Lei, C.L. [686], China K000782913
    Jan 16, 1934 Magaramathan, D.V. [s.n.], India K000782950
    Jan 1, 1919 Bünnemeijer, N. [3956], Indonesia K000782960
    Jan 1, 1919 Bünnemeijer, N. [5651], Indonesia K000782961
    Jan 1, 1919 Bünnemeijer, N. [4782], Indonesia K000782964
    Sep 20, 1855 Poiteau [1824-07], Guyana K001075214
    Robson, N.K.B. [136], Zambia K000731130
    Harley, R.M. [10819], Brazil K001075219
    Yashiroda, K. [s.n.], Japan K000782904
    Parkinson, C.E. [14359], Myanmar K000782940
    Maitland, T.D. [19], Cameroon K000182162
    Maitland, T.D. [350], Cameroon K000182171
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n135], Cameroon K000182172
    Maitland, T.D. [353], Cameroon K000182175
    Henderson, M.R. [20488], Indonesia K000782958
    Kerr, A.F.G. [848], Thailand K000621522
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3793], Thailand K000621523
    Stauffer, H.U. [360], Congo K000731065
    Clayton, W.D. [4395], Brazil K001075213
    Holttum, R.E. [19847], Malaysia K000782953
    Millar, A.N. [NGF35333], Papua New Guinea K000731002
    Schodde, R. [4590], Papua New Guinea K000782997
    Meijer, W. [39553], Malaysia K000782973
    Wright [s.n.], Jamaica K001075189
    Sorensen, Th. [1513], Thailand K000682581
    Sorensen, Th. [3568], Thailand K000682582
    Darbyshire, P.J. [722], Papua New Guinea K000731003
    Darbyshire, P.J. [7876], Papua New Guinea K000731004
    Hoogland, R.D. [3250], Papua New Guinea K000731007
    McKee, H.S. [30552], New Caledonia K000731023
    McKee, H.S. [6625], New Caledonia K000731024
    Mhoro, B. [2239], Tanzania K000731115
    Verdcourt, B. [5159], Papua New Guinea K000731005
    Gutierrez, H.G. [s.n.], Philippines K000782989
    Craven, L.A. [734], Papua New Guinea K000782996
    McLeish, I. [2502], Oman K000782894
    Lock, J.M. [81191], Sudan K000731092
    Johnson [1011] K000365325 Unknown type material
    Clarkson, J.R. [7247], Australia K000731014
    Jackson, J.K. [468], Sudan K000731093
    Simpson, D.A. [8994], Brunei K000782969
    Pandeya, S.C. [1502], India K000782932
    Wong, K.M. [WTM2577], Malaysia K000782977
    Smitinand, T. [1948], Thailand K000682579
    Smitinand, T. [5974], Thailand K000682588
    de Vogel, E. [1000], Indonesia K000782971
    de Vogel, E. [6846], Indonesia K000782982
    de Vogel, E. [4531], Indonesia K000782984
    s.coll. [125], Martinique K000308844
    s.coll. [36], Martinique K000308845
    Lugas, L. [2558], Malaysia K000782976
    Awa, D. [S47477], Malaysia K000782980
    Lepschi, B.J. [2488], Australia K000731009
    Ellis [13], Australia K000731016
    Linder, D.H. [510], Liberia K000731043
    Parry, D.E. [2], Thailand K000682590
    Virgo, K.J. [3], Côte d'Ivoire K000731044
    Put [21], Thailand K000621524
    Put [2636], Thailand K000621525
    Irwin, H.S. [7487], Brazil K001075210
    Eiten, G. [4553], Brazil K001075216
    Lhotzky [s.n.], Brazil K001075201
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1654], Sri Lanka K000782946
    Clayton, D. [5330], Sri Lanka K000245128 epitype
    Clayton, D. [5170], Sri Lanka K000782929
    Folli, D.A. [2675], Brazil K001075218
    Tsang, W.T. [284], China K000782914
    Tsang, W.T. [354], China K000782915
    Collins, D.J. [1898], Thailand K000682587
    Lace, J.H. [4319], Myanmar K000782942
    Kermode, C.W.D. [16657], Myanmar K000782941
    Mueller, F. [68], Brazil K001075211
    Lazarides, M. [5661], Australia K000731017
    Flenley, J.R. [ANU2188], Papua New Guinea K000783000
    Widjaja [6052A], Indonesia K000782991
    Widjaja [6312], Indonesia K000782992
    Stewart, R.R. [21077], India K000782937
    Robinson, H.C. [s.n.], Indonesia K000782963
    Dusén, P. [16408], Brazil K001075215
    Magogo, F. [872], Kenya K000731114
    den Hoed, G. [138], Thailand K000682584
    Murray, R.P. [s.n.], Portugal K000782900
    Floto, F. [7619], Thailand K000682583
    Williams, T.L. [3], Ghana K000731049
    Migeod, F. [94], Cameroon K000182170
    Preuss, P.R. [1139], Cameroon K000182169
    Leistner [225], Namibia K000731139
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60048], Madagascar K000731137
    Van der Ben, D. [1234], Congo K000731064
    Van der Ben, D. [1235], Congo K000731066
    Hennipman, E. [5033], Indonesia K000782981
    Hennipman, E. [5031], Indonesia K000782983
    Gamble, J.S. [24643], India K001082330
    Madsen, J.E. [63056], Ecuador K000731154
    Hu, S.Y. [5302], Hong Kong K000782910
    Fosberg, F.R. [49485], Seychelles K000731136
    Niyomdham, C. [1610], Thailand K000682580
    Specht, R.L. [1161], Australia K000731010
    Parham, J.W. [7318], Fiji K000731025
    Bauer, F. [6], Cameroon K000182168
    Savatier, L. [1471], Japan K000782906
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3816], India K001117280
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3816], India K001117281
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3816], India K001117282
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117283
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117284
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 3816], Malaysia K001117286
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 3816], Malaysia K001117287
    Tsiang, Y. [2808], China K000782919
    Lorzing [11867], Indonesia K000782965
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001075212
    Swanson [s.n.], Brazil K001075200
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075190
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075193
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075194
    Ahles, H.E. [36249], USA K000731149
    Heckman, C.W. [114], Thailand K000682591
    Heckman, C.W. [137], Thailand K000682592
    Heckman, C.W. [138], Thailand K000682593
    Wiggins, I.L. [18478], Ecuador K000731153
    Francis, W.D. [s.n.], Australia K000731018
    Chung, H.H. [2406], China K000782922
    Gould, F.W. [13655], Sri Lanka K000782947
    Sibil, J. [283], Malaysia K000782975
    Sibil, J. [185], Malaysia K000782978
    Conklin, H.C. [668], Philippines K000782987
    Phleonchit [924], Thailand K000682578
    Peterson, P.M. [9411], Ecuador K000731156
    Peterson, P.M. [15097], Peru K000731157
    Dee [s.n.], Thailand K000682586
    Florence, J. [5595], French Polynesia K000731019
    Wit, P. [FHI66735], Nigeria K000731050
    Wood, K.R. [5794], USA K000731020
    Soibeh, D. [10], Malaysia K000782979
    Heath, A. [1187], Botswana K000731133
    Phloenchit [1400], Thailand K000682589
    den Hoed [879], Thailand K000682585
    Raizada, M.B. [22786], India K000782924
    Bai-Zhong, X. [4239], China K000782917
    Bai-Zhong, X. [3636], China K000782918
    Elsener, A. [48], Indonesia K000782972
    Elmer, A.D.E. [22385], Philippines K000782988
    Regnell, A.F. [III 1401], Brazil K001075208
    Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [3313], Brazil K001075207
    s.coll [10256], Zambia K000731126
    s.coll [20138], China K000782916
    s.coll [ec191], Bangladesh K000782938
    s.coll [18215], Philippines K000782990
    Cheng [90], China K000782923
    Archbold, N.E. [s.n.], Tanzania K000731116
    Lwin, U.T. [123], Myanmar K000782939
    But, P. [193], Hong Kong K000782908
    Seidenschwarz, F.G. [15412], Peru K000731158
    Remanandan, P. [4530], India K000782926
    Britto, S.J. [RHT41595], India K000782948
    Brunt, M.A. [952], Cameroon K000182161
    Chuml, H. [55], Cameroon K000182174
    Swire, P.W. [0s.n001], Cameroon K000182173
    Charter, J. R. [36988], Cameroon K000182165
    Pedder, J. W. R. [27], Cameroon K000182166
    Maikin, L. [117179], Malaysia K000782968
    Spruce [98], Brazil K001075202
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816], India K001117277
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117278
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816], Bangladesh K001117279
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117285
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816], India K001117288
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117289
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3816] K001117290
    Burchell [1525], Brazil K001075195
    Burchell [3453], Brazil K001075196
    Burchell [1032], Brazil K001075198
    Burchell [983], Brazil K001075199
    Burchell [8430-2], Brazil K001075203
    Burchell [6926], Brazil K001075204
    Burchell [8649-3], Brazil K001075205
    Burchell [8690-3], Brazil K001075206
    Tweedie [1333], Brazil K001075209
    Chevallier, A. [44529], Cape Verde K000731037
    Watson, F.M. [25], Australia K000731015
    Bunyes, A. [K46], Nauru K000731022
    Biswas, R. [219], Nigeria K000731032
    Adjamohaun, E. [426A], Côte d'Ivoire K000731045
    Leuenberger, E.B. [1097], Togo K000731048
    Waytan, M.A. [4013], Congo K000731059
    Mulvany, P.M. [PMM90], Ethiopia K000731096
    Webber, O. [208], Zimbabwe K000731129
    Amico, A. [466], Mozambique K000731121
    De Komminjs, J. [676], Mozambique K000731122
    Kornns, J. [3137], Zambia K000731131
    Moll, E J. [1549], South Africa K000731145
    Rodusay, T.A. [7a], South Africa K000731146
    Robinson, A. Jr. [2658], USA K000731148
    Andena, B. [1815], Colombia K000731151
    Bris, K. [10190E], Iran K000782880
    Pahot [10123E], Iran K000782887
    Jongbloed, M. [1013], Oman K000782892
    Harper, D. [s.n.], Portugal K000782899
    Subham, D [102], Portugal K000782901
    Kuprijanov, J. [405], Russian Federation K000782902
    Dahlsteand, A. [s.n.], Japan K000782907
    Tanaka, T. [s.n.], Taiwan K000782911
    Recd [1166], China K000782920
    Parmanand, N. [881], India K000782928
    Van Cuylenberg, B.W.B. [GT34], Sri Lanka K000782930
    Rai [3], India K000782934
    Banirju, R. [17567], India K000782935
    Vennugopal, N. [RHT18809], India K000782936
    Wallace, E.L. [227], Myanmar K000782943
    Hammil, M. [3001], Malaysia K000782952
    Rumuton, M. [236], Malaysia K000782974
    Sandermann, O. [992], Philippines K000782986
    Veerteegh, C. [77], India K000782994
    Bennett, F. [s.n.], Australia Eleusine indica var. monostachya K000907234 Unknown type material

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 8 (1788)

    Accepted by

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    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
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    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
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    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
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    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
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    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
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    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
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    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
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    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
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    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
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    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/