Skip to main content

Coffee is the world's favourite drink, the most important commercial crop-plant, and the second most valuable international commodity after oil. Worldwide there are about 20 million coffee farming families; around 100 million people depend on coffee for their livelihoods. Its export value alone is immense (US $ 15.4 billion in 2009/10) and as such it plays a crucial role in the economies of several tropical countries.

Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee)

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
arábigo, arabio, borbón, borbón amarillo, café, café arábico, café borbón, café borbón amarillo, café Colombia, café común, café de Colombia, café enano, café San Lorenzo, café San Ramón, cafeto, cafeto arábico, caturra, colombia, maragojito, sanramón, si

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree; young branchlets glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades elliptic to lanceolate or almost round, 6–18 x 2–10 cm, acuminate at the apex, glabrous, shiny above; stipules triangular, 4–8 mm long, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually 5-merous, in axillary clusters
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-limb a short rim, sometimes with irregular teeth up to 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white; tube 7–11 mm long; lobes 8–16 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe red, ellipsoid to subglobose, 1–2 cm long.
Distribution
N2 presumably native to S Ethiopia, SE Sudan, and N Kenya, widely cultivated throughout the tropics.
Vernacular
Arabian coffee (English); bun (Somali).

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Coffee is the world's favourite drink, the most important commercial crop-plant, and the second most valuable international commodity after oil. Worldwide there are about 20 million coffee farming families; around 100 million people depend on coffee for their livelihoods. Its export value alone is immense (US $ 15.4 billion in 2009/10) and as such it plays a crucial role in the economies of several tropical countries.

Coffee is made from the roasted seeds of the genus Coffea, and is brought from plant to cup via a complex process. The glossy red fruits are picked, the fleshy outer part of the berry removed and then their pale-coloured seeds (beans) are sent to mills to remove the hard outer layer encasing the seeds. At this stage the beans are either exported, or they are blended with others from the region before exportation. The complicated process of roasting usually occurs in the country where the beverage is consumed.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Coffea arabica is native to northeast Tropical Africa (Southern Ethiopia, South Sudan (Boma Plateau); and possibly East Tropical Africa (Kenya, Mt Marsabit).  It is sometimes naturalised in tropical areas. Arabica coffee grows at 950 m to 1,950 m above sea level.

In total, there are 125 coffee species, which occur naturally in Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands, (Madagascar, Comoros, and the Mascarenes), southern Asia, south east Asia and Australia.  Arabica and Robusta coffee are the main beverage species, with a small percentage of Liberica coffee (Coffea liberica ) grown for commercial purposes. Other species in East Africa and Madagascar are sometimes used locally to make coffee on a very small scale.

Description

Overview: A small tree, 2 to 8 m tall, with characteristic horizontal branching, although in plantations it is usually pruned to take the form of a small shrub. Its leaves are evergreen and usually shiny.

Flowers: The flowers are hermaphroditic and sweet-scented, the corolla white, tubular, normally with 5 lobes.

Fruits: The fruits are usually red but sometimes yellow or purple at maturity. The outer layer is soft, edible and sweet-tasting, containing two or sometimes one 'seed' — actually a seed encased in a hard, almost crispy outer layer which together forms a structure known as a pyrene; this outer layer is removed by milling.

Seeds: The seed itself is pale fawn or brown (dark brown only after roasting) and has a characteristic groove on its inner surface, which curls round inside the seed.

Arabica coffee is a hybrid species, formed by the hybridization of Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora . It is one of the only species in the genus Coffea that is self-fertile (autogamous), a single plant being able to produce fertile seed from its own pollen.

Threats and conservation

Based on its extent of occurrence alone, Arabica coffee falls within the Vulnerable extinction risk category. However, a rating of Endangered is more likely, owing to ongoing deforestation in Ethiopia and elsewhere, and the threats posed by climate change. Arabica is a climate-sensitive species, being found only in humid, montane forests at 950-1950 m. The montane forests of south-western Ethiopia are by far the most important area in terms of natural distribution and genetic diversity.

Cultivated Arabica is under threat because of a low-level of genetic diversity within the crop cultivars, leaving plantations vulnerable to pests, diseases and climate change. These problems are compounded for both wild populations and crops because coffee seeds cannot yet be stored successfully in conventional seed banks (in low temperature, low moisture environments). In vitro germplasm collections, cryopreservation and living collections are possible alternatives but they are expensive and time-consuming to maintain.

Kew produces conservation assessments for coffee species as part of its important coffee research programme.

Coffee plantations can be managed to promote biodiversity, with many plantations now being certified by fair-trade and forest alliance organisations. In particular, shade coffee can be planted with forest trees, to promote wildlife and particularly bird species.

Uses

Coffee cultivation may have started in the sixth century in Yemen, its use being for spiritual purposes.

Coffee became a popular drink in Europe from the seventeenth century onwards, being imported from plantations established first by the Dutch in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Java, and later from plantations in Brazil and the West Indies established in the eighteenth century. Much of the world's Arabica coffee is produced in Latin America.

The stimulating effects of coffee are largely due to the alkaloid caffeine contained in the seeds. As well as a beverage, coffee is used for flavouring foods and confectionery. The beans are also a commercial source of caffeine, a by-product of making de-caffeinated coffee. Caffeine is added to soft drinks and medicines as a stimulant and diuretic. Roasted and ground coffee is a constituent of traditional medicines in South-East Asia to alleviate stomach ache and diarrhoea, to increase blood pressure, and as a diuretic. In some countries coffee leaves are used to make a hot drink, like tea.

Coffee wood, from the main trunk, is used locally in construction. David Livingstone, the nineteenth century explorer and missionary, reported seeing coffee trees being used to make huts in his travels in southern Africa. The timber is straight, dense, strong and partially resistant to termites. The wood is also used for furniture and as fuel wood.

Arabica and Robusta coffee

Originally from the high altitude, humid forests of Ethiopia and South Sudan, where it still grows wild, Arabica coffee ( Coffea arabica ) is considered to produce the finest coffee beans. Most instant coffee is made from a mixture of Arabica and Robusta ( Coffea canephora ), the latter having a less delicate flavour and aroma and more caffeine. Generally, Arabica is grown in upland plantations and Robusta in lowland plantations.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

You can find out more about storing and germinating the seeds of Coffee arabica in Kew's Difficult Seeds Project

Distribution
Ethiopia, Kenya
Ecology
Humid, evergreen forest.
Conservation
Vulnerable (provisional assessment).
Hazards

Although recent research shows that there are many positive health benefits from consumption in moderation, much research is being undertaken to investigate the numerous compounds found in coffee and how these affect quality and human health.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 200 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, árbol

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Bush or tree 2–7 m. tall; young branches glabrous, covered with light brown shiny bark.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades elliptic to broadly elliptic or oblong-elliptic (or lanceolate or round in some cultivated forms), 7–18 cm. long, 3–7.5 cm. wide, distinctly acuminate at apex, acute to obtuse at base, thinly coriaceous to coriaceous, with 7–10 pairs of main lateral nerves, shiny above, margin sometimes undulate; domatia rather inconspicuous, glabrous, occasionally absent from some leaves; stipules triangular, 4–8 mm. long, acute, usually exceeded by a mucro.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers (4–)5(–6)-merous, 2–20 per axil, borne in 1–3(–15) fascicles; peduncle 0.5–2(–3) mm. long in flower (2–4 mm. long in fruit); pedicels 1–2(–3) mm. long (calyces usually well clear of surrounding bracteole); bracteoles frequently with subfoliaceous lobes up to 6 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1–2 mm. long; limb reduced to a rim or sometimes irregularly toothed; teeth up to 1(–2) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube (0.5–)0.9–1.1 cm. long, 2–3 mm. wide at throat; lobes oblong, 0.9–1.6 cm. long, (2–)4–6 mm. wide, rounded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red (yellow or purple in cultivated forms), oblong-ellipsoid or sometimes ± subglobose, 1–2 cm. long, 0.9–1.1 cm. wide; pedicel lengthening to 4–8 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds fawn or greenish fawn, 9–1.2(–1.5) cm. long, 6–7 mm. wide.
Habitat
Forest; 1370–1525 m.
Distribution
K1 widely cultivated throughout the tropics

[FSOM]
Use
Locally grown for the seeds (coffee beans)

[KSP]
Use
Food and drink.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Ascension, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Caroline Is., Central American Pac, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Society Is., St.Helena, Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Windward Is.

English
Arabica coffee
Spanish
Café, cafeto.

Coffea arabica L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 12, 1997 Bolivia K000466760
May 5, 1996 Ecuador K000466757
Sep 13, 1989 Bolivia K000466759
Nov 19, 1982 Bolivia K000466763
Nov 19, 1982 Galapagos Is. K000466766
Oct 1, 1969 Mooney, H.F. [5733], Ethiopia K000912159
Feb 13, 1962 Peru K000466764
Jul 12, 1960 Bolivia K000466761
Nov 5, 1956 Peru K000466765
Sep 23, 1943 Galapagos Is. K000466767
Jan 3, 1940 Bolivia K000466762
Nov 7, 1916 Peru K000466624
32258.000
Small, D. [248], Sierra Leone 36222.000
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243], India K001123403
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243] K001123400
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243] K001123399
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243] K001123401
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243] K001123402
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6243], India K001123398
Colombia K000466748
Colombia K000466749
Colombia K000466750
Colombia K000466751
Dawe, M.T. [315], Colombia K000466752
Colombia K000466753
Venezuela K000466754
Ecuador K000466755
Ecuador K000466756
Bolivia K000916097
Bolivia K000916100

First published in Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M. & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465-512.
  • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B. & Klein, R.M. (2004). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1: 1-344. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Species Profiles

  • Burkill, H. M. (1997). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa Vol. 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, A. P. & Rakotonsalo, F. (2008). A taxonomic revision of the baracoffea alliance: nine remarkable Coffea species from western Madagascar. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 355–390.
  • Davis, A. P., Chester, M., Maurin, O., & Fay, M. F. (2007). Searching for the relatives of Coffea (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): the circumscription and phylogeny of Coffeeae based on plastid sequence data and morphology. American Journal of Botany 94: 313–329.
  • Davis, A. P., Gole, T. W., Baena, S. & Moat, J. (2012). The impact of climate change on indigenous Arabica coffee ( Coffea arabica): predicting future trends and identifying priorities. PLOS ONE 7: e47981.
  • Davis, A. P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D. M. & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465–512.
  • Davis, A. P., Tosh, J., Ruch, N. & Fay, M. F. (2011). Growing coffee: Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) subsumed on the basis of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences; implications for the size, morphology, distribution and evolutionary history of Coffea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167: 357–377.
  • Livingstone, D. (1858). Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. London.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Maurin, O, Davis, A.P., Chester, M., Mvungi, E.F., Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y & Fay, M.F. (2007). Towards a phylogeny for Coffea (Rubiaceae): identifying well-supported lineages based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequences. Annals of Botany 100: 1565–1583.
  • Pendergrast, M. (2001). Uncommon Grounds: The history of coffee and how it transformed our world. Texere, New York.
  • Usher, G. (1974). A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable, London.
  • Wrigley, G. (1988). Coffee. Longman, Harlow.
  • van der Vossen, H. A. M. & Wessel, M. (eds) (2000). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 16. Stimulants. Backhuys, Leiden.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Caf. du Globe 2: tt. 17-24: 3: 196 (q.v. for vars.).
  • F.T.A. 3: 180 (excl. var. leucocarpa Hiern)
  • Lebrun Inst. Roy Colon. Belge, sect. sci. Nat. et Méd., Mém. 11, 3: 114
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 172 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
  • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B. & Klein, R.M. (2004). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1: 1-344. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 1: 71 (1929).
  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 2, pl. 17–24 (1942)
  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 3: 196 (1947)
  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 3: 442 (1949).
  • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 349 (1848).
  • A.S. Thomas in Emp. Journ. Exp. Agric. 10: 207–212 (1942).
  • Bridson, Troupin & Verdc. in Fl. Rwanda 3: 154, fig. 47.1 (1985).
  • Cheney, Coffee, Monogr. Econ. Sp.: 48, t. 13–18 (1925).
  • Cramer, Rev. Lit. Coff. Res. Indonesia: 89 (1957).
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 499 (1830).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 436 (1961).
  • De Wild. in Actes Congr. Intern. Bot., Paris: 231 (1900)
  • De Wild. in Ann. Jard. Buitenz., suppl. 3, 1: 360 (1910).
  • De Wild., Les Caféiers: 35 (1901)
  • De Wild., Miss. Laurent: 344, t. 67–70 (1906)
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: 2: 432 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 405 (1962).
  • Froehner in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 261 (1898).
  • Froehner in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 1: 233 (1897)
  • Haarer, ModernCoffee. Prod: 13 (1962).
  • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 180 (1877), pro parte.
  • Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot., ser. 2, 1: 170 (1876), pro parte,
  • K. Schum in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 246 & C: 387 (1895).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 156 (1963).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753).
  • Lebrun in Mém. Inst. Roy. Col. Belge, Sect. Sci. Nat. Méd. Mém. 8°, 11(3): 114 (1941).
  • Sims in Bot. Mag. 32, t. 1303 (1810).
  • Wellman, Coffee: 28 (1961).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466749
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466748
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466759
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466750
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466761
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466760
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466756
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466767
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000916097
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466755
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466766
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466624
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466757
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466752
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466763
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466751
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466762
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000916100
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466754
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466765
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466753
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000466764

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/