1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Coffea L.
      1. Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to South Sudan and N. Angola.

    [FWTA]

    Rubiaceae, F. N. Hepper & R. W. J. Keay. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An evergreen shrub or small tree, to 20 ft. high
    Ecology
    Spontaneous in the understorey of rainforest
    Note
    Also cultivated
    Flowers
    Flowers white.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Tree or bush 3.5–8.5 m. tall; young branches glabrous, covered with light brown shiny bark.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades oblong-elliptic, broadly elliptic or occasionally obovate to lanceolate, 12–31.5(–40) cm. long, 4.5–12(–22) cm. wide, distinctly acuminate at apex, obtuse to cuneate or sometimes rounded at base, papery to thinly coriaceous, shiny above, margin sometimes undulate in some cultivated forms; lateral nerves (8–)11–15(–17) pairs, main ones sometimes puberulent beneath; domatia rather inconspicuous, pubescent or absent; petiole 0.5–1.8(–2.1) cm. long; stipules deltate, 0.6–1.8 cm. long, obtuse or acute but always exceeded by a mucro.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–6(–7)-merous, 8–30(–48) per axil, borne in 1–4(–7) congested fascicles; peduncle up to 3 (–7 in fruit) mm. long; inflorescence-branches and pedicels compressed in flowering stage so that calyces do not or scarcely exceed the surrounding bracteole; bracteoles stipule-like, with well-developed subfoliaceous lobes, up to 2 cm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube 1–2 mm. long; limb reduced to a rim.
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube 0.5–1.6 cm. long, 2–3 mm. wide at throat; lobes oblong, 0.8–1.9 cm. long, 1.8–5.5 mm. wide, obtuse to rounded.
    Fruits
    Fruit red, sometimes faintly striped, broadly oblong-ellipsoid, 0.9–1.7 cm. long, 0.6–1.2 cm. wide; disc small, cylindrical, somewhat prominent.
    Seeds
    Seeds fawn, 7–13 mm. long, 5.5–9.5 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Forest; 700–1400 m.
    Distribution
    T1 U1 U2 U3 West Africa, also widely cultivated

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Borneo, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Jamaica, Leeward Is., New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Senegal, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2003 Sebsebe [5106], Cameroon K000198315
    May 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1611], Cameroon K000051263
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8871], Nigeria 12184.000
    Troupin, G. [3380], Congo, DRC 3294.000
    Keay, R.W.J. [25542], Nigeria 3293.000
    Chevalier, A. [12330], Guinea K000265054 Unknown type material
    Chevalier, A. [12332bis], Guinea K000265061 Unknown type material
    Chevalier, A. [12332bis], Guinea K000265062 Unknown type material
    Onochie [40405], Nigeria 6622.000
    Davis, A.P. [3026], Cameroon 70355.000
    Klaine, R.P. [1928b], Gabon K000430924 isosyntype
    Klaine [2312], Gabon K000265057 Unknown type material
    Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon 70450.000
    Maurin, O. [24], Cameroon 70452.000
    Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon K000466435
    Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon K000466433
    Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265058 Unknown type material
    Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265059 Unknown type material
    Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265060 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1905 Chevalier, A. [12330], Guinea Coffea maclaudii K000986908 Unknown type material

    First published in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 1: 237 (1897)

    Accepted by

    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
    • Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M. & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465-512.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Caf. du Globe 2: tt. 28-39 ; 3: 186 (q.v. for vars.).
    • Lebrun Inst. Roy Colon. Belge, sect. sci. Nat. et Méd., Mém. 11, 3: 122, tt. 11-14 (q.v. for syn.)
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv., ed. 1, 2: 250, 252
    • in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 1: 237 (1897)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 154 (1963).
    • Haarer, Modern Coffee Prod.: 17 (1962).
    • Wellman, Coffee: 80 (1961).
    • Cramer, Rev. Lit. Coff. Res. Indonesia: 120 (1957).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 432 (1952).
    • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 3: 186 (1947).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert: 354 (1947).
    • Thomas in Emp. Journ. Exp. Agric. 12: 3 (1944).
    • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 2, t. 28–39 (1942)
    • Lebrun in Mém Inst. Col. Belge, Sect. Sci. Nat. Méd. 8°, 11(3): 122, t. 11–14 (1941).
    • Portères, Ann. Agric. Afr. Trop. Occ. Fr. 1, 2: 235 t. 29 & 30 (1937).
    • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 1: 82, fig. 14 & 15 (1929).
    • Cheney, Coffee, Monogr. Econ. Sp.: 72, t.26 & 27 (1925).
    • De Wild., Ann. Jard. Buitenz., suppl. 3, 1: 368 (1910).
    • De Wild., Miss. Laurent: 330 (1906)
    • De Wild., Les Caféiers: 20 & 25 (1901)
    • De Wild. in Actes Congr. Intern. Bot., Paris: 233 (1900)
    • Froehner in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 269 (1898).
    • Froehner in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 1: 237 (1897)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0