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  1. Family: Annonaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Xylopia L.
      1. Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Annonaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Tall evergreen aromatic tree or shrub, 5.4–30(–45) m. tall, with fairly smooth grey-brown bark, a much-branched crown and sometimes a buttressed bole; young branchlets puberulous at first, but soon glabrous, reddish-brown to blackish, smooth or rugose and mostly with many conspicuous lenticels.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades oblong, elliptic, ovate or oblanceolate, (6–)8–16.4 cm. long, 2.8–6.5 cm. wide, obtuse, acute or prominently acuminate at the apex (the acumen attaining 2 cm.), cuneate to rounded and decurrent at the base, coriaceous, drying bluish-green above and greenish-brown to orange beneath, glabrous above, adpressed pubescent or glabrescent (silky pilose when very young) and usually ± glaucous beneath; venation laxly to densely reticulate, usually prominent on both surfaces but sometimes obscure above; petiole 3–6 mm. long, blackish, adpressed pubescent or glabrescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in 3–5-flowered fascicles, fragrant; pedicels 0.4–1.1 cm. long, adpressed ferruginous pubescent; bracteoles 2–3, cucullate, 1–4 mm. long, 2–2.5 mm. wide, adpressed pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate-triangular, 3–5 mm. long and wide, rounded to acute or apiculate, glabrescent to pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
    Corolla
    Petals cream, greenish-white or yellow; outer linear, 2.5–5.5 cm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide above, 5–6 mm. wide at the base, concave at the base, silky pubescent outside, tomentellous inside save at the base; inner rather shorter and narrower, 2.7–4.5 cm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, tomentellous save at the base.
    Stamens
    Stamens linear, 1–1.5 mm. long; connective-prolongation obliquely capitate, papillose or pubescent.
    Carpels
    Carpels 24–32(–42); ovary cylindric, 1–1.5 mm. long, sparsely adpressed pilose, 6–8-ovuled; styles linear-tapering, aggregated to form a very narrow cone ± 3–4.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruiting pedicels 0.7–1.2(–2.2) cm. long; monocarps (5–) 16–24(–42), green to reddish, cylindrical, 1.5–6 cm. long, 5–7 mm. wide, straight, obtuse, 1–8-seeded, not or scarcely constricted between the seeds, glabrous, ± smooth but usually diagonally ridged, subsessile.
    Seeds
    Seeds orange-red to black, cylindrical, vertical, 5–7 mm. long, 2–4 mm. wide and thick; aril papery, yellow, 2–3 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 19, p. 78.
    Habitat
    Rain-forest, swamp forest, also in Parinari woodland; 800–1200 m.
    Distribution
    from Senegal to the Sudan and S. to Angola, Congo, Zambia and Mozambique T1 T3 T6 T8 U4
    [FWTA]

    Annonaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A tree, up to 60 ft. high
    Flowers
    Greenish-white fragrant flowers
    Fruits
    Fruit a cluster of very numerous narrow dark brown carpels.
    [FZ]

    Annonaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Tree 5.4–30 (45) m. high, erect, with fairly smooth grey-brown bark, sometimes buttressed.
    Branches
    Branches red-brown to blackish, smooth or ± rugose, puberulent at first, eventually glabrous; lenticels usually numerous and conspicuous.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; lamina (6) 8–16.4 x 2.8–6.5 cm., oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate or ovate, acute to obtuse or usually with an acumen up to 2 cm. long at the apex, cuneate to rounded and decurrent at the base, coriaceous, bluish-green and glabrous above, greenish-brown to orange (usually ± glaucous) and appressed-pubescent or glabrescent below, with nerves and ± densely reticulate venation prominent on both sides; petiole 3–6 mm. long, often blackish, appressed-pubescent or glabrescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in 2–5-flowered fasciculate or ± condensed cymes, very fragrant; pedicels 4–11 mm. long, appressed-rusty-pubescent; bracteoles 2, reduced.
    Calyx
    Sepals 3–5 mm. long, ovate-triangular, obtuse or apiculate to rounded, appressed-pubescent or glabrescent outside, glabrous and blackish within.
    Corolla
    Petals greenish-white to yellow, the outer ones 2.5–5 x c. 0.5 cm., linear, curved in section above, concave at the base, sericeous-pubescent outside, tomentellous within except at the base, the inner ones somewhat shorter, narrower, flat or quadrangular in section above, concave at the base, tomentellous except at the base.
    Stamens
    Stamens 1–1.5 mm. long, linear; connective-prolongation ± obliquely capitate, papillose or pubescent.
    Carpels
    Carpels c. 24–32 (42), c. 4 mm. long; ovary cylindric, appressed-pilose, 6–8-ovulate; style c. 3 times as long as the ovary, cylindric.
    Fruits
    Fruit on a pedicel 7–12 (22) mm. long; fruiting carpels (5) 16–24 (42), 1.5–6 x 0.5–0.7 cm., 1–8-seeded, cylindric, straight, not apiculate, not or scarcely constricted between the seeds, glabrous, ± smooth, usually diagonally ridged, green or reddish, subsessile.
    Seeds
    Seeds 5–7 mm. long, cylindric, orange-red to black, vertical, with yellow papyraceous aril 2–3 mm. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Sudan

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11057], Cameroon K000460023
    Jul 1, 2006 Gosline, G. [423], Cameroon K000460022
    Nov 1, 1963 Oldeman, R.A.A. [514], Côte d'Ivoire K000354680
    Jan 1, 1962 de Wilde, J.J.F.E. [3633], Liberia K000354685
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2883], Zambia 17648.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8022], Zambia 11911.000
    White, F. [3309], Zambia 11910.000
    Akpabla, G.K. [797], Ghana K000354682
    Lane-Poole, C.E. [319], Sierra Leone K000354679
    Raynal, A. [13652], Senegal K000354674
    Thomas, D.W. [348], Cameroon K000094622
    Thomas, D.W. [3177], Cameroon K000094623
    Etuge, M. [148], Cameroon K000094624
    Guinea K000199066
    Heudelot [s.n.], Guinea K000199067
    Dinklage, M. [2005], Liberia K000354686
    Foster, E.W. [194], Nigeria K000354684
    Aubréville, M. [828], Côte d'Ivoire K000354681
    d'Orey, J. [264], Guinea-Bissau K000354676
    Harris, T. [644], Mozambique K000614226
    Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614850
    Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614511
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [22747], Benin K000354683
    s.coll. [1717], Guinea-Bissau K000354677
    Ingram, W. [1], Gambia K000354675
    Maclaud, D.r. [189], Guinea K000354678
    Drummond, R.B. [4714], Uganda Xylopia eminii 22095.000

    Bibliography

    First published in R.de la Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Pl. Vasc.: 53 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Annonaceae: 1-131.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Engl. & Diels Monogr. 60.
    • F.T.A. 1: 32

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Annonaceae: 1-131.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Le Thomas in Fl. Gabon 16,Annonacées: 165, t. 2/above, t. 30 (1969).
    • Paiva in Mem. Soc. Brot. 19: 74 (1966).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 54 (1962).
    • Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 136 (1960).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 42 (1954).
    • Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 324, t, 32 (1951).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 46 (1949).
    • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 6: 60, t. 21/C (1901).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 30 (1868).
    • A. Rich. in Sagra, Hist. He Cub., Bot., Pl. Vase. 1: 53 (1845).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0