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  1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spermacoce L.
      1. Spermacoce laevis Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico, Caribbean to S. Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Colombia
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Erect or scrambling annual herb 0.3–1.2 m. tall; stems with slight ribs, glabrous or with lines of very short sparse hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrowly elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate to ovate, 0.8–5.5 cm. long, 0.3–2.5 cm. wide, acute at the apex, cuneate at the base into the stipule-sheath, the very narrow leaf-base resembling a short petiole ± 2 mm. long, entirely glabrous save for very short hairs at and near margins above giving a slightly scabrid feel; stipules drying a rather bright reddish brown; bases slightly pubescent, 2–3 mm. long, with 5–7 fine fimbriae 2.5 mm. long, or at inflorescence-bearing nodes ± 100.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal and axillary many-flowered sessile clusters; stipule-derived bracteoles with fimbriae 3 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube narrowly obconic, 2–2.5 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, densely hairy above; limb obsolete; lobes triangular, 0.6 mm. long, ciliate, separated by a fringe.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or lobes tipped with pink; tube 1.2 mm. long; lobes lanceolate, 1.3 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide, slightly hairy at the apex outside.
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments exserted 1–1.2 mm.
    Pistil
    Style exserted 1.3 mm.; stigma 0.5 mm. wide.
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid or obovoid–fusiform, 2.5–4 mm. long, 1.8 mm. wide, 1 mm. thick, hairy above, the valves completely falling, each 2.2 mm. long, 1.8 mm. wide, bifid at the apex, crowned by the calyx-lobes.
    Seeds
    Seeds chestnut-brown, oblong-ellipsoid, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.7–0.8 mm. wide, 0.5 mm. thick, divided into transverse areas by anastomosing transverse grooves, the actual areas reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 50/14, p. 342.
    Habitat
    Grassland, bushland, roadsides and waste land, often in old cultivations as a weed, now thoroughly naturalised in many places; 0–1130 m.
    Distribution
    Florida, Bermuda, W. Indies, Central and S. America to Bolivia and Galapagos Is., now widely spread as a weed and seen from Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Is., Papua, Java, Madagascar and Chagos Is. K7 T3 T6 Z

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Galápagos, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Fiji, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Madagascar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Samoa, Solomon Is., Solomon Is., Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Spermacoce laevis Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Spruce, R. [4041], Peru K000006681
    Smithi, H.H. [321], Colombia K000470300 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Tabl. Encycl. 1: 273 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bacigalupo, N.M. & Cabral, E.L. (1999). Sobre la identidad de dos especies de Lamarck, Spermacoce laevis y S. remota (Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae) Darwiniana 37: 333-334.

    Not accepted by

    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]
    • Borhidi, A. (2012). Rubiáceas de México, ed. 2: 1-608. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]
    • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]
    • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia. [Cited as Spermacoce tenuior.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
    • Ruhsam, M in Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Poiret in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 7: 313 (1806).
    • Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 273 (1792), excl. ref. Sloane.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0