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  1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spermacoce L.
      1. Spermacoce latifolia Aubl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Straggling or prostrate annual herb 10–60 cm. long with bright pale yellow green stems and foliage; stems branched or unbranched, square with angles slightly to distinctly winged, glabrous or with sparse to fairly dense short hairs on the angles or stems hairy all over.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades often red margined, elliptic, 1.2–5 cm. long, 0.8–2.9 cm. wide, acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, pubescent or ± scabrid above with tubercle-based hairs, pubescent beneath or almost glabrescent all over save for the scabrid margins; petiole 0.5–3 mm. long; stipule-sheath 1.5 mm. long, with 5–9 setae 1.5–3.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary clusters ± 8 mm. wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube pubescent, obconic, 2.5 mm. long; lobes 4, oblong to lanceolate, 1.2–2 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla whitish, blue or pink; tube funnel-shaped, 5 mm. long; lobes ovate-triangular, 1.5 mm. long and wide.
    Filaments
    Filaments exserted ± 1 mm.
    Pistil
    Style exserted 2 mm.; stigma-lobes linear, 1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid or subglobose, 2.5–3 mm. long, wrinkled, hairy.
    Seeds
    Seeds yellow brown, ellipsoid, 2–2.8 mm. long, 1.3–1.7 mm. wide, 0.8–1 mm. thick, reticulate-rugulose, with a deep wide ventral excavation.
    Figures
    Fig. 50/22, p. 342.
    Habitat
    Grassland; 1140 m.
    Distribution
    U4 Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghanaa native of S. America from Central America to Bolivia and West Indies but now a common casual in many parts of the world including India, Ceylon, Nepal, Malay Peninsula, Java and Australia
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 1600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Liberia, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Northern Territory, Queensland, Samoa, Sierra Leone, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Uganda, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2014 Lankester, C.H. [s.n.], Brazil K001068333
    Feb 1, 2014 Burchell, W.J. [86797], Brazil K001068332
    Feb 1, 2014 Burchell, W.J. [8638], Brazil K001068393
    Jan 1, 2008 Zappi, D.C. [1235], Mato Grosso Borreria latifolia K000578079

    Bibliography

    First published in Hist. Pl. Guiane: 55 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Middleton, J.D. (ed.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 13: 1-654. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
    • Wiersema, J.H. & al. (2017). A new weed in Florida, Spermacoce latifolia and the distinction between S. alata and S. latifolia (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae) Castanea 82: 114-131.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Harwood, R. & Dessein, S. (2005). Australian Spermacoce (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae). I. Northern Territory Australian Systematic Botany 18: 297-365.
    • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B., Klein, R.M. (2005). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 2: 349-842. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
    • Das, S.C., Rashid, M.H., Rahman, M.A. & Wilcock, C.C. (2004). Notes on the Rubiaceae 2: five new records for Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 11: 9-17.
    • Rahman, M.O. (2004). Second list of angiospermic taxa of Bangladesh not included in Hooker's 'Flora of British India' and Prain's 'Bengal Plants': series - II Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 11: 49-56.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Not accepted by

    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. [Cited as Spermacoce alata.]
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. [Cited as Spermacoce alata.]
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. [Cited as Spermacoce alata.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Wiersema, J.H. & al. (2017). A new weed in Florida, Spermacoce latifolia and the distinction between S. alata and S. latifolia (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae) Castanea 82: 114-131.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 14 Taxon 61: 1336-1345.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Ruhsam, M in Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Rahman, M.O. (2004). Second list of angiospermic taxa of Bangladesh not included in Hooker's 'Flora of British India' and Prain's 'Bengal Plants': series - II Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 11: 49-56.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane Fr. 1: 55, t. 19/1 (1775).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0