1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Combretum Loefl.
      1. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia.

    [FWTA]

    Combretaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Scandent shrub
    Ecology
    Often on river banks
    Corolla
    Petals often white outside and red inside, or white and turning red first on the outside, later turning entirely red
    Note
    Commonly cultivated.
    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Woody climber; young branchlets tomentose to sparsely pubescent, rarely sparsely glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite; lamina papyraceous, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 8–14.5 cm. long, 3.5–9 cm. wide, apex acuminate or subcaudate, base rounded or subcordate, tomentose to nearly glabrous, minutely verruculose; lateral nerves 5–7 pairs, domatia sometimes present; petiole up to 10 mm. long, the base sometimes persisting and forming a spine.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal and axillary spikes 2–5(–10) cm. long, sometimes forming a leafy panicle; bracts lanceolate-acuminate or elliptic, 6–10 mm. long, 1–3 mm. wide.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle 3–4 mm. long, pubescent to sericeous-tomentose; upper receptacle narrowly tubular, expanding slightly at the apex, 6–8 cm. long, tomentose to pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals triangular, 1–3 mm. long, acute.
    Corolla
    Petals imbricate in bud, white becoming dark red on the inner face, enlarging at anthesis, oblong to oblong-obovate, up to 25 mm. long, 13 mm. wide, apex acute (in the Flora area) orobtuse, shortly clawed.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 7–8 mm. long; anthers 0.9 mm. long.
    Style
    Style with upper part free for 10–20 mm.
    Fruits
    Fruit (from West African material) ovate-elliptic in outline, 2.5–4 cm. long, 0.75–1.25 cm. wide, appressed pubescent to glabrous; wings 1–2 mm. wide, stout; stipe 0.5–1 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Acacia bushland, Brachystegia woodland, hillslopes and along stream banks; 900–1350 m.
    Distribution
    reputed to be a native of Asia, but probably also native in tropical Africa, now widely cultivated in the tropics, often naturalized T5 T6 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Cambodia, China Southeast, Christmas I., Hainan, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Sinai, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Gabon, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2014 van Meer, P.P.C. [671], Nigeria Quisqualis indica K000812465
    Hutchinson, J. [166], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050831
    Hutchinson, J. [166], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050832
    Mann, G. [20], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050833
    Mann, G. [2212], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050835
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117906
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117908
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117909
    Millett, C. [s.n.], China Quisqualis indica K000786141
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117907
    Champion, J.G. [s.n.], Hong Kong Quisqualis indica K000786142
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4010] Quisqualis indica K001117905
    Thorel, C. [1476], Vietnam Quisqualis pierrei K000786134

    First published in Useful Pl. Dominica: 277 (1998)

    Accepted by

    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.

    Not accepted by

    • Z.Wu, P.H.Raven & D. Hong (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Quisqualis indica.]
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Quisqualis indica.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Z.Wu, P.H.Raven & D. Hong (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0