1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Apoballis Schott
      1. Apoballis mutata (Scort. ex Hook.f.) S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Myanmar to Sumatera.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Diagnostic
    Schismatoglottis ridleyana represents a usually robust form with dull green broad leaves with rather prominent and closely spaced primary lateral veins and a fine dense velvety indumentum on the petioles and abaxial midrib.
    Distribution
    Burma to Thailand and Malesia: widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera.
    Habitat
    Lowland rain forest to lower montane forest; sometimes on limestone in wet places; robust forms particularly found in disturbed habitat and along stream banks in the Malay Peninsula;
    General Description
    Slender to moderately robust erect herbs c. 0.35–1.1 m tall. Stem epigeal, pleionanthic, c. 2–4 cm thick, in the upper part often clothed with the remains of old leaf bases, the lower part naked as these rot; internodes c. 1–4 cm diam., often with conspicuous rather thick roots. Leaves c. 5 per module, very variable in size; petiole c. 20–45 cm long, smooth to very faintly asperous to minutely velvety-hairy (hand lens), adaxially flattened to slightly channelled with the angles rounded to distally inconspicuously alate, pale green to bright dark red, sometimes somewhat glaucous (due to minute hairs, not wax), sheathing in the lower ⅓–3⁄5; wings of sheath membranous, fully attached and tapering, deliquescent/marcescent more or less immediately after emergence of leaf within; blade broadly to narrowly ovato-sagittate, somewhat glossy bright mid-green to dull mid-green, usually bronze-tinged to pink when newly emerged; c. 12–40 cm long × 6–30 cm wide, widest from at the base to about ⅓ along midrib, the base more or less cordate with posterior lobes prominent, c. 3–12 cm long, triangular to rounded, sometimes almost overlapping across the sinus and posterior costae sometimes clearly differentiated for a few millimetres before dividing into primary venation of posterior lobes, occasionally naked in the sinus for 2–3 mm, more usually with lamina to the sinus and occasionally sub-peltate, the tip acute to shortly acuminate; midrib abaxially prominent, with 9–15 primary lateral veins per side, sometimes branched, diverging at c. 50–70°, impressed adaxially, prominent abaxially; interprimary veins rather conspicuous and raised abaxially, impressed adaxially; secondary venation flush with lamina and mostly inconspicuous; tertiary venation inconspicuous. Inflorescences 2– several together on rather short slender peduncles which sometimes flop out of the subtending leaf sheath or cataphyll as these deliquesce/marcesce. Spathe c. 7–15 cm long; lower spathe c. ⅓ the length of the whole, ovoid to subglobose at female anthesis, green to red (correlated with petiole colour); limb narrowly lanceolate, clasping the spadix, barely opening at anthesis, thence closing again and temporarily persistent, eventually marcescent or breaking away after senescing, yellowish ivory to pale orange. Spadix more or less cylindrictapering, subequalling the spathe, sessile, obliquely inserted; female zone c. ⅓ the length of the spadix, cylindric, c. 8–10 mm diam. at base, slightly tapering distally; interpistillar staminodes very sparsely to irregularly densely distributed amongst the ovaries, but usually concentrated at the very base of female zone, stalked and clavateheaded, taller than and conspicuously larger than the pistils; sterile interstice 1–2 cm long, 4–7 mm diam., composed of basal sessile interpistillar staminodes, then a concentration of smaller sessile staminodes, these becoming distant distally in small groups of commonly 2–4 surrounded by naked spadix tissue, these then usually concentrated again in an incomplete ring adjunct to the male zone; male zone more or less cylindric, c. 1.3–3.3 cm long, slightly thicker than top of sterile interstice, 5–8 mm diam.; stamens small, rectangular-dumbbell-shaped from above, 0.5 × 1 mm, with the thecae impressed; pollen ivory, dusty; appendix exceeding to shorter than the male zone, c. 1.5–3 cm long, tapering and pointed to cylindric and round-tipped, basally the same diameter as the male zone, rarely narrowly ovoid, composed of columnar flattopped staminodes. Fruiting spathe declinate, narrowly ovoid.
    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Distribution

    Burma to Thailand and Malesia: widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera.

    General Description

    Slender to moderately robust erect herbs c. 0.35-1.1 m tall. Stem epigeal, pleionanthic, c. 2-4 cm thick, in the upper part often clothed with the remains of old leaf bases, the lower part naked as these rot; internodes c. 1-4 cm diam., often with conspicuous rather thick roots. Leaves c. 5 per module, very variable in size; petiole c. 20-45 cm long, smooth to very faintly asperous to minutely velvety-hairy (hand lens), adaxially flattened to slightly channelled with the angles rounded to distally inconspicuously alate, pale green to bright dark red, sometimes somewhat glaucous (due to minute hairs, not wax), sheathing in the lower ?-3/5; wings of sheath membranous, fully attached and tapering, deliquescent/marcescent more or less immediately after emergence of leaf within; blade broadly to narrowly ovato-sagittate, somewhat glossy bright mid-green to dull mid-green, usually bronze-tinged to pink when newly emerged; c. 12-40 cm long × 6-30 cm wide, widest from at the base to about ? along midrib, the base more or less cordate with posterior lobes prominent, c. 3-12 cm long, triangular to rounded, sometimes almost overlapping across the sinus and posterior costae sometimes clearly differentiated for a few millimetres before dividing into primary venation of posterior lobes, occasionally naked in the sinus for 2-3 mm, more usually with lamina to the sinus and occasionally sub-peltate, the tip acute to shortly acuminate; midrib abaxially prominent, with 9-15 primary lateral veins per side, sometimes branched, diverging at c. 50-70°, impressed adaxially, prominent abaxially; interprimary veins rather conspicuous and raised abaxially, impressed adaxially; secondary venation flush with lamina and mostly inconspicuous; tertiary venation inconspicuous. Inflorescences 2- several together on rather short slender peduncles which sometimes flop out of the subtending leaf sheath or cataphyll as these deliquesce/marcesce. Spathe c. 7-15 cm long; lower spathe c. ? the length of the whole, ovoid to subglobose at female anthesis, green to red (correlated with petiole colour); limb narrowly lanceolate, clasping the spadix, barely opening at anthesis, thence closing again and temporarily persistent, eventually marcescent or breaking away after senescing, yellowish ivory to pale orange. Spadix more or less cylindric-tapering, subequalling the spathe, sessile, obliquely inserted; female zone c. ? the length of the spadix, cylindric, c. 8-10 mm diam. at base, slightly tapering distally; interpistillar staminodes very sparsely to irregularly densely distributed amongst the ovaries, but usually concentrated at the very base of female zone, stalked and clavate-headed, taller than and conspicuously larger than the pistils; sterile interstice 1-2 cm long, 4-7 mm diam., composed of basal sessile interpistillar staminodes, then a concentration of smaller sessile staminodes, these becoming distant distally in small groups of commonly 2-4 surrounded by naked spadix tissue, these then usually concentrated again in an incomplete ring adjunct to the male zone; male zone more or less cylindric, c. 1.3-3.3 cm long, slightly thicker than top of sterile interstice, 5-8 mm diam.; stamens small, rectangular-dumbbell-shaped from above, 0.5 × 1 mm, with the thecae impressed; pollen ivory, dusty; appendix exceeding to shorter than the male zone, c. 1.5-3 cm long, tapering and pointed to cylindric and round-tipped, basally the same diameter as the male zone, rarely narrowly ovoid, composed of columnar flat-topped staminodes. Fruiting spathe declinate, narrowly ovoid.

    Habitat

    Lowland rain forest to lower montane forest; sometimes on limestone in wet places; robust forms particularly found in disturbed habitat and along stream banks in the Malay Peninsula; to 1500 m alt.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand

    Apoballis mutata (Scort. ex Hook.f.) S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1999 Rodd, A. [47], Indonesia Schismatoglottis mutata 70864.000
    Bradley [87], Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata 56089.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia Schismatoglottis mutata 63395.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia Schismatoglottis mutata 63434.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia Schismatoglottis mutata 63436.000
    Herscovitch, C., Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata 63629.000
    Herscovitch, C., Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata 63639.000
    Herscovitch, C., Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata 63645.000
    Scortechini, B. [267], Peninsular Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata K000400031 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [4443], Peninsular Malaysia Schismatoglottis mutata K000400030 Unknown type material
    Kurz, S. [2659], Myanmar Schismatoglottis kurzii K000291683 Unknown type material

    First published in Bot. Stud. (Taipei) 51: 254 (2010)

    Accepted by

    • Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Hay, A. & Yuzammi 2000. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia: 1. Schismatoglottis. Telopea. 9 (1): 1-177

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0