1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone

        Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is well-adapted to poor, droughty and infertile soils and is therefore a vital subsistence crop in countries surrounding the Sahara Desert and in western Africa where soils are tough and rainfall is low. As climate change continues to affect weather and rainfall patterns, pearl millet is likely to become increasingly important as a crop for the future. In addition to being an important food source, pearl millet has a number of medicinal applications.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is well-adapted to poor, droughty and infertile soils and is therefore a vital subsistence crop in countries surrounding the Sahara Desert and in western Africa where soils are tough and rainfall is low. As climate change continues to affect weather and rainfall patterns, pearl millet is likely to become increasingly important as a crop for the future. In addition to being an important food source, pearl millet has a number of medicinal applications.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Pennisetum glaucum is cultivated in Eastern Europe, Africa, temperate Asia (western Asia, Arabia and China) and tropical Asia (India and Indo-China), Australia, South America, Caribbean.

    Pearl millet was first domesticated in the Sahel region 4,000 to 5,000 years ago from its wild ancestor, Pennisetum violaceum . From the Sahel it spread to East Africa and southern Africa and later to the Indian subcontinent. It reached the Americas by the 18th century.

    Pearl millet is cultivated as a grain crop mainly in the semi-arid regions of West Africa as well as in the driest parts of East and southern Africa and the Indian subcontinent. It is popularly grown as a fodder crop in Brazil, the US, South Africa and Australia. 

    Description

    Overview:  Pennisetum glaucum  is an annual with erect, robust stems 150-300 cm long. The nodes along the stem are bearded and the ligule (the appendage between the sheath and the blade of the leaf) is a fringe of hairs.

    Leaves: Leaf blades are 50-100 cm long and up to 70 mm wide.  

    Flowers: The inflorescence is a panicle (a compound of axes, known as racemes, along which the spikelets are arranged - spikelets are the clustered unit of flowers and bracts typical of grasses). Beneath each spikelet is a whorl of bristles. Spikelets are 3-6 mm long and comprise one basal sterile floret and one fertile floret. Each floret is enclosed by bracts, known as glumes, of different sizes, the lower one obscure and the upper one 0.5-2.0 mm long. The flower has three anthers and the styles are joined at the base. The flower does not contain lodicules (small structures at the base of the stamens). 

    Fruits: The fruit is a caryopsis (a fruit in which the seed is fused to an outer wall) 2.0-5.5 mm long which is exposed at maturity.

    Uses

    100 million people in parts of tropical Africa and India depend on pearl millet as their staple food source. Pearl millet can be prepared in a variety of different ways: 

    The grains can be boiled or steamed directly, or ground into a flour to make bread, porridge or couscous.Pearl millet and pulses can be seasoned to make delicious snacks popular in Africa.The grain is also used in the making of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Millet beer, for example is often considered a staple of religious and social life in Africa.Pearl millet is high in protein which makes it an excellent feed for poultry and other livestock.

    The stems of the plant are used for fencing, thatching and building materials. The red and purple varieties of pearl millet are used for making dyes for leather and wood.

    Pearl millet also has a number of medicinal applications. In African traditional medicine the grain is used to treat chest disorders, leprosy, blennorrhoea and poisonings. A decoction made from the roots is used in the treatment of jaundice and the vapour from inflorescence extracts is inhaled for respiratory diseases in children. 

    Pearl millet has been found to be effective in suppressing root-lesion nematodes ( Pratylenchus penetrans ) and is being used as an alternative to soil fumigation in tobacco and potato cropping in Canada.

    Pearl millet grains are used in rituals in some areas.

    Crop wild relatives of pearl millet

    Millets are better adapted to poor, droughty and infertile soils than most other grain crops. Even so, lower and erratic rainfall patterns are the cause of major problems and diseases, such as downy mildew, which can destroy as much as 80% of the crop. Wild relatives of pearl millet were screened for traits such as drought- and disease-resistance and were then bred with cultivated varieties that demonstrated high yield and other positive traits. An improved strain of the crop was released in 2005 by the Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences at Aberystwyth University for cultivation throughout India and further work is being done to transfer these valuable traits into other varieties worldwide.

    Pennisetum squamulatum is a relative of pearl millet that is endangered in the wild and is therefore a conservation priority. Efforts are being made by the Millennium Seed Bank and the Global Crop Diversity Trust to collect the seeds of the wild relatives of 29 of the most important food crops. The project is called 'Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change' and by protecting, collecting and preparing crop wild relatives such as  Pennisetum squamulatum for use in breeding programs, their genetic potential can be harnessed to make our crops more resilient in the face of climate change. 

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plants worldwide, focusing on those plants which are under threat and those which are of most use in the future. Once seeds have been collected they are dried, packaged and stored at -20°C in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 7.1 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant can be dried to low moisture contents without significantly reducing their viability. This means they are suitable for long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Germination testing: Successful

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of pearl millet are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    Egypt, Mali, Niger
    Ecology
    Well drained loamy to sandy soils.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Culms
    Culms stout, up to 3 m. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae up to 1 m. long and 7 cm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 4 cm.–2 m. long, subglobose to linear; rhachis cylindrical, villous; involucre persistent, borne upon a stipe 1–25 mm. long, enclosing 1–9 spikelets; bristles glabrous or plumose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–6 mm. long.
    Lemma
    Both lemmas usually pubescent on the margins.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; robust; 150-300 cm long. Culm-nodes bearded. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 50-100 cm long; 8-70 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle pubescent above. Panicle spiciform; linear, or elliptic, or ovate; 4-200 cm long; 0.8-5.5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis terete; pubescent. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1-9 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 2-7 mm long; base bluntly stipitate (1.1-25mm). Involucral bristles persistent; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 12-26 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous, or ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; 3-6 mm long; persistent on plant.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; 3-6 mm long; persistent on plant.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume oblong; 0.5-2 mm long; 0.15-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate, or oblong; 1.5-4.5 mm long; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; chartaceous; 5-7 -veined; ciliolate on margins; emarginate, or obtuse; muticous, or mucronate. Fertile lemma ovate; 1.4-4 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5-7(-9) -veined. Lemma margins flat; pubescent. Lemma apex emarginate, or obtuse. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; anther tip penicillate. Styles connate below.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid; exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity; 2-5.5 mm long.
    Distribution
    Europe: eastern. Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China. Australasia: Australia. South America: Caribbean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Brunken.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food and drink, fodder crop, dye, construction materials, medicinal, silage, haymaking, grazing.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Amur, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, California, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Georgia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Magadan, Maine, Mali, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Niger, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen

    Common Names

    English
    Pearl millet

    Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8639], Nepal Setaria glauca K001131074
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8639], Nepal Setaria glauca K001131075
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131065
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131066
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131067
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131068
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131069
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131070
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639], Bangladesh Setaria glauca K001131071
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639], India Setaria glauca K001131072
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131073
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131076
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8639] Setaria glauca K001131077
    Schimper [1811], Ethiopia Pennisetum glaucum K000281150
    Quartin-Dillon [186], Ethiopia Pennisetum glaucum K000281149
    [Porager, H.P.] [s.n.] Pennisetum glaucum K001056162
    Xiao Bai-Zhong [4280], China Pennisetum glaucum K000731196
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8644], India Penicillaria spicata K001131104
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8644] Penicillaria spicata K001131103
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8644] Penicillaria spicata K001131105
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8644] Penicillaria spicata K001131106

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 127 (2010)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0