1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Tropical Africa. It is used as animal food.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 4000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 1500 - 4000 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Sward-forming perennial, with slender rhizomes, and stout rampant stolons amply clothed with pale subinflated leaf-sheaths; culms 3–15(–45) cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 1–15 cm. long, 1–5 mm. wide, flat or folded.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence reduced to a cluster of (1–)2–4(–6) subsessile spikelets concealed within the uppermost sheath; involucre sparse; bristles delicate, 1/3–3/4 the length of the spikelet, scaberulous to ciliolate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly lanceolate, 10–20 mm. long; lower glume 0; upper glume ovate, 1–3 mm. long, rarely longer, sometimes suppressed; lower lemma narrowly lanceolate, as long as the spikelet, tapering, barren without a palea; upper lemma resembling the lower; stigma simple or shortly bifid, up to 3 cm. long, subplumose; anthers exserted on fine silvery filaments up to 5 cm. long.
    Habitat
    Upland grasslands on fertile soils subject to grazing; widely grown for pasture under the name “Kikuyu grass”; 1400–3300 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T2 T3 T7 U2 U3 Ethiopia, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundiintroduced to tropical highlands and to subtropics throughout the world
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Sward-forming perennial with slender rhizomes, and stout rampant stolons amply clothed with pale sub-inflated leaf-sheaths.
    Culms
    Culms 3–15(45) cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 1–15 cm. long, flat or folded.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence reduced to a cluster of (1)2–4(6) subsessile spikelets concealed within the uppermost sheath; involucre sparse; bristles delicate, 1/3–3/4 length of spikelet, scaberulous to ciliolate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 10–20 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume absent; superior 1–3 mm. long, sometimes suppressed.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma as long as spikelet. Superior lemma resembling inferior.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma as long as spikelet.
    Superior
    Superior lemma resembling inferior.
    Stigma
    Stigma up to 3 cm. long, subplumose.
    Stamens
    Anthers exserted on fine silvery filaments up to 5 cm. long.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A creeping perennial with stout stolons forming a dense mat
    Stamens
    The silvery filaments of the stamens are conspicuously exserted from the leaf-sheath when in flower.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms prostrate; 3-15(-45) cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths inflated. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1-15 cm long; 1-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex obtuse.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets; comprising (1-)2-4(-6) fertile spikelets; shorter than basal leaves; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath; enclosed. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; lanceolate; 4-15 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; few; 3-15 in principal whorl; terete; flexible; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 10-20 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 10-20 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure, or one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 0-3 mm long; 0-0.2 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to fertile lemma; oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 8-12 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 10-20 mm long; membranous; without keel; 8-12 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea membranous; 2-4 -veined.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 4-5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Filaments 25-50 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; terminally exserted. Styles 20-30 mm long; connate below; 1 of their length connate.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: southwest USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [UPB]
    Animal Food
    Used for grazing (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jawa, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Namibia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Kikuyo.

    Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13574], Cameroon Pennisetum clandestinum K000580324
    Jun 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [144], Cameroon Pennisetum clandestinum K000107912
    Clayton, W.D. [4302], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102962
    Lindeman, J.C. [29], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102959
    Schimper [398], Ethiopia Pennisetum clandestinum K000281183
    Sendulsky, T. [806], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102957
    Scheffler, G. [294], Kenya Pennisetum clandestinum K000281293 isotype
    Klein, R.M. [11920], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102958
    Dombrowski, L.T. [3831], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102960
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1869], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102961
    Skvortzov, B. [47], Brazil Pennisetum clandestinum K001102956

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 127 (2010)

    Literature

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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/