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This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to Tropical Africa, Aldabra, Arabian Peninsula.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Robust perennial, often forming bamboo-like clumps; culms 1–6 m. high or more.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades up to 120 cm. long, 4 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle linear, 7–30 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical, with or without short peduncle-stumps, pubescent; involucre enclosing 1–5 spikelets, one of them sessile and hermaphrodite, the others shortly pedicelled and ♂ (but scarcely different in appearance); bristles glabrous or obscurely ciliate, the longest 10–40 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets lanceolate, 4.5–7 mm. long, glabrous; lower glume 0; upper glume 1/4–1/2 the length of the spikelet, rarely 0; lower lemma 2/3 to as long as the spikelet (rarely less), ♂ or barren, membranous, acuminate; upper lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the lower half, acuminate; anther tips bearing a tiny tuft of hairs (very rarely glabrous).
Figures
Fig. 156.
Habitat
Riverine sites, valley bottoms and forest margins, with a preference for rich soils; widely cultivated for fodder under the names “Elephant” and “Napier” grass; 0–2500 m.
Distribution
K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 tropical Africaintroduced to most other tropical countries

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
A robust perennial up to 8 m. high and 2.5 cm. diam. at the base
Ecology
Commonly occurs near the banks of streams.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust; 100-600 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 3-5 mm long. Leaf-blades 30-120 cm long; 20-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous; scaberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle pubescent above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 7-30 cm long; 1-3 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis, or with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis terete; pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 8-16 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 10-40 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous, or ciliate.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure, or one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate, or ovate; 0.75-3 mm long; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 0.66-1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; (1-)2-5(-7) -veined; acute, or acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat; eciliate. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea coriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-3.1 mm long; anther tip penicillate. Styles connate below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid, or ovoid; dorsally compressed; concealed by floret; 1.8-2.2 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southeast USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Robust perennial, often forming bamboo-like clumps.
Morphology Culms
Culms 1–6 m. high.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf laminae up to 120 cm. long and 4 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 7–30 cm. long, linear; rhachis cylindrical, with or without short peduncle stumps, pubescent; involucre enclosing 1–5 spikelets, one of them sessile and bisexual, the others shortly pedicelled and male (but scarcely different in appearance); bristles glabrous or obscurely ciliate, the longest 10–40 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 4.5–7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Inferior glume suppressed, the superior 1/4–1/2 length of spikelet or rarely suppressed.
Inferior
Inferior glume suppressed, the superior 1/4–1/2 length of spikelet or rarely suppressed. Inferior lemma 2/3 to as long as spikelet (rarely less).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Inferior lemma 2/3 to as long as spikelet (rarely less). Superior lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the inferior half.
Superior
Superior lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the inferior half.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther tips bearing a tiny tuft of hairs (very rarely glabrous).

Doubtfully present in:

Saudi Arabia

Native to:

Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Oman, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is.

Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Zollinger, H. [2367] Pennisetum macrostachyum K000290601 isotype
Jun 1, 2004 Gosline, G. [282], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000746240
Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4487], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107927
Jun 1, 2001 Cable, S. [894], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107887
Feb 1, 1996 Patterson, C. [6], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107946
Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [27], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731226
Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9899], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000510853
Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5208], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000510856
Jan 1, 1993 Casas, F. [11465], Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000731232
Jan 1, 1993 Carvalho [4539], Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000731233
Jan 1, 1981 Friis, I. [170], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731236
Jan 19, 1977 Lowe, J. [2956], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731227
Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M. [592], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731228
Oct 1, 1931 Brown [836], Ghana Pennisetum purpureum K000281313
Gossweiler, J. [5896], Angola Pennisetum purpureum K000281292 holotype
Vogel, Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000281312 syntype
Vogel, Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000281311 syntype
Vogel, Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000281310 syntype
Chipp. [1011], Ghana Pennisetum purpureum K000281314
Smitinand, T. [6124], Thailand Pennisetum purpureum K000688365
Folli, D.A. [2619], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106086
Paciornik, E.F. [32], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106088
Irwin, H.S. [14139], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106089
Imaguire, N. [3358], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106090
Eiten, G. [2899], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106094
Hatschbach, G. [15856], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106095
Pilz, G.E. [2628], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731218
Brummitt, R.K. [10553], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731244
Aslte, W.L. [2131], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731251
Hepper, F.N. [1852], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731225
Wild, H. [2656], Mozambique Pennisetum purpureum K000731239
Blair Rains, A. [204], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731219
Ward, J.F. [48], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731223
Wild, H. [3367], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731253
Harrison, M.N. [489], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731237
Hepper, F.N. [1323], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731229
Crook, A.O. [P68], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731254
Richards, H.M. [9416], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731248
Gutzwiller [773], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731231
Eiten, G. [7391], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106091
Robinson, E.A. [601], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731250
Saadou, M. [2372], Niger Pennisetum purpureum K000731213
Van der Ben, D. [586], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731234
Gilliland, H.B. [189], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731255
Banda, E.A. [3341], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731240
Sorensen, Th. [2633], Thailand Pennisetum purpureum K000688366
Strang, H.E. [189], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106096
Mitchell, B.L. [2627], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731249
Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [10145], Liberia Pennisetum purpureum K000731217
Smith, P.P. [972], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731252
Deighton, F.C. [3272], Sierra Leone Pennisetum purpureum K000731216
Latilo [FHI66276], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731220
Kivu, L. [679], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731235
De Witte [3977], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731230
FNH [8005], Côte d'Ivoire Pennisetum purpureum K000731215
Lawlor, D.W. [625], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731222
Phiri, R. [62], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731246
Irwin, H.S. [5748], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106093
Jackson, J.K. [358], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731238
de Lemos, F. [23], Mozambique Pennisetum purpureum K000731243
Lawesson, J.E. [5427], Senegal Pennisetum purpureum K000731210
Strid, A. [2460], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731247
Saadou, M. [2273], Niger Pennisetum purpureum K000731214
Yeates [250/89], Mali Pennisetum purpureum K000731211
Salubeni, A.J. [1958], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731245
Salubeni, A.J. [3885], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731241
Smith, S. [2936], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106087
Brass, L.J. [17100], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731242
Lowe, J. [4309], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106092
Gwynne [1107B], Seychelles Pennisetum purpureum K000731256

First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/