1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to Tropical Africa, Aldabra, Arabian Peninsula.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Robust perennial, often forming bamboo-like clumps; culms 1–6 m. high or more.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 120 cm. long, 4 cm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 7–30 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical, with or without short peduncle-stumps, pubescent; involucre enclosing 1–5 spikelets, one of them sessile and hermaphrodite, the others shortly pedicelled and ♂ (but scarcely different in appearance); bristles glabrous or obscurely ciliate, the longest 10–40 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, 4.5–7 mm. long, glabrous; lower glume 0; upper glume 1/4–1/2 the length of the spikelet, rarely 0; lower lemma 2/3 to as long as the spikelet (rarely less), ♂ or barren, membranous, acuminate; upper lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the lower half, acuminate; anther tips bearing a tiny tuft of hairs (very rarely glabrous).
    Figures
    Fig. 156.
    Habitat
    Riverine sites, valley bottoms and forest margins, with a preference for rich soils; widely cultivated for fodder under the names “Elephant” and “Napier” grass; 0–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 tropical Africaintroduced to most other tropical countries
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A robust perennial up to 8 m. high and 2.5 cm. diam. at the base
    Ecology
    Commonly occurs near the banks of streams.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust; 100-600 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 3-5 mm long. Leaf-blades 30-120 cm long; 20-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous; scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle pubescent above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 7-30 cm long; 1-3 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis, or with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis terete; pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 8-16 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 10-40 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous, or ciliate.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure, or one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate, or ovate; 0.75-3 mm long; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 0.66-1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; (1-)2-5(-7) -veined; acute, or acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat; eciliate. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-3.1 mm long; anther tip penicillate. Styles connate below.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid, or ovoid; dorsally compressed; concealed by floret; 1.8-2.2 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southeast USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Robust perennial, often forming bamboo-like clumps.
    Culms
    Culms 1–6 m. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae up to 120 cm. long and 4 cm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 7–30 cm. long, linear; rhachis cylindrical, with or without short peduncle stumps, pubescent; involucre enclosing 1–5 spikelets, one of them sessile and bisexual, the others shortly pedicelled and male (but scarcely different in appearance); bristles glabrous or obscurely ciliate, the longest 10–40 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4.5–7 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume suppressed, the superior 1/4–1/2 length of spikelet or rarely suppressed.
    Inferior
    Inferior glume suppressed, the superior 1/4–1/2 length of spikelet or rarely suppressed. Inferior lemma 2/3 to as long as spikelet (rarely less).
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma 2/3 to as long as spikelet (rarely less). Superior lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the inferior half.
    Superior
    Superior lemma subcoriaceous and shining in the inferior half.
    Anthers
    Anther tips bearing a tiny tuft of hairs (very rarely glabrous).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Oman, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is.

    Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Zollinger, H. [2367] Pennisetum macrostachyum K000290601 isotype
    Jun 1, 2004 Gosline, G. [282], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000746240
    Jun 1, 2001 Cable, S. [894], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107887
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4487], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107927
    Feb 1, 1996 Patterson, C. [6], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000107946
    Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [27], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731226
    Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9899], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000510853
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5208], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000510856
    Jan 1, 1993 Carvalho [4539], Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000731233
    Jan 1, 1993 Casas, F. [11465], Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000731232
    Jan 1, 1981 Friis, I. [170], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731236
    Jan 19, 1977 Lowe, J. [2956], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731227
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M. [592], Cameroon Pennisetum purpureum K000731228
    Oct 1, 1931 Brown [836], Ghana Pennisetum purpureum K000281313
    Deighton, F.C. [3272], Sierra Leone Pennisetum purpureum K000731216
    Robinson, E.A. [601], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731250
    Hepper, F.N. [1852], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731225
    Hepper, F.N. [1323], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731229
    Gossweiler, J. [5896], Angola Pennisetum purpureum K000281292 holotype
    Brass, L.J. [17100], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731242
    Crook, A.O. [P68], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731254
    Mitchell, B.L. [2627], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731249
    Brummitt, R.K. [10553], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731244
    Sorensen, Th. [2633], Thailand Pennisetum purpureum K000688366
    Hatschbach, G. [15856], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106095
    Smith, S. [2936], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106087
    Wild, H. [2656], Mozambique Pennisetum purpureum K000731239
    Wild, H. [3367], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731253
    Jackson, J.K. [358], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731238
    Smitinand, T. [6124], Thailand Pennisetum purpureum K000688365
    Richards, H.M. [9416], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731248
    Vogel, Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000281312 syntype
    Vogel, Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000281311 syntype
    Vogel, Equatorial Guinea Pennisetum purpureum K000281310 syntype
    Irwin, H.S. [14139], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106089
    Irwin, H.S. [5748], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106093
    Eiten, G. [7391], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106091
    Eiten, G. [2899], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106094
    Folli, D.A. [2619], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106086
    Paciornik, E.F. [32], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106088
    Strid, A. [2460], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731247
    Gwynne [1107B], Seychelles Pennisetum purpureum K000731256
    de Lemos, F. [23], Mozambique Pennisetum purpureum K000731243
    Chipp. [1011], Ghana Pennisetum purpureum K000281314
    Banda, E.A. [3341], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731240
    Lowe, J. [4309], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106092
    Lawesson, J.E. [5427], Senegal Pennisetum purpureum K000731210
    Pilz, G.E. [2628], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731218
    De Witte [3977], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731230
    Salubeni, A.J. [3885], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731241
    Salubeni, A.J. [1958], Malawi Pennisetum purpureum K000731245
    Van der Ben, D. [586], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731234
    Smith, P.P. [972], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731252
    Gilliland, H.B. [189], Zimbabwe Pennisetum purpureum K000731255
    Gutzwiller [773], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731231
    Blair Rains, A. [204], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731219
    Lawlor, D.W. [625], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731222
    Imaguire, N. [3358], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106090
    Strang, H.E. [189], Brazil Pennisetum purpureum K001106096
    Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [10145], Liberia Pennisetum purpureum K000731217
    Latilo [FHI66276], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731220
    Phiri, R. [62], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731246
    Saadou, M. [2372], Niger Pennisetum purpureum K000731213
    Saadou, M. [2273], Niger Pennisetum purpureum K000731214
    Yeates [250/89], Mali Pennisetum purpureum K000731211
    Harrison, M.N. [489], Sudan Pennisetum purpureum K000731237
    FNH [8005], Côte d'Ivoire Pennisetum purpureum K000731215
    Ward, J.F. [48], Nigeria Pennisetum purpureum K000731223
    Kivu, L. [679], Congo Pennisetum purpureum K000731235
    Aslte, W.L. [2131], Zambia Pennisetum purpureum K000731251

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/