1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus ramosus (Hochst.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to Eritrea an Tanzania.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tough caespitose annual; culms 50–200 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or folded, 6–30 cm. long, 4–18 mm. wide, with a blunt tip; sheaths keeled.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear to narrowly oblong, 2–7 cm. long, compact, bristly, the culm scabrid below the panicle; rhachis with sharp decurrent wings below the closely spaced cupular scars, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet, truncate at the base, the single whorl of bristles briefly connate there; bristles glabrous, the longest 10–30 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly ovate to ovate, 5–6.5 mm. long; lower glume small, up to 1 mm.; upper glume 4/5 to as long as the spikelet, the lower lemma similar, ♂ or barren; upper lemma coriaceous, acuminate to acuminate-aristate.
    Habitat
    Swampy places, particularly on black clays; 500–1500 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U3
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, up to 1·2 m. high
    Ecology
    On seasonally swampy heavy soils.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms erect; 50-200 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 6-30 cm long; 4-18 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle antrorsely scabrous above. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 2-7 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis with briefly decurrent ribs; scaberulous; glabrous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below (slightly); oblong; 5-20 mm long; base truncate. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; in one whorl; 12-24 in principal whorl; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 10-30 mm long; terete; rigid; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets, or shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.1-0.15 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 0.8-1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 0.8-1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 5-6.5 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1.5-2.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles free to the base.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

    Introduced into:

    India

    Cenchrus ramosus (Hochst.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 25, 1970 Kotschy [199], Sudan Pennisetum ramosum K000281160 isotype
    Mar 25, 1970 Kotschy [199], Sudan Pennisetum ramosum K000281162 isotype
    Schimper [1058], Ethiopia Pennisetum ramosum K000281159 isosyntype
    Schimper [1399], Ethiopia Pennisetum ramosum K000281158 isosyntype
    Kotschy [199], Sudan Pennisetum ramosum K000281161 isotype
    Kotschy [199], Sudan Pennisetum ramosum K000281163 isotype

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0