1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus riparius (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to E. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial, with long stout rhizomes and stolons forming a mat; culms 15–45 cm. high, somewhat spongy, ascending from a creeping base.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 7–35 cm. long, 3–10 mm. wide, flat or folded.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 4–10 cm. long, often enclosed below by the uppermost sheath, rhachis with shallow angular ribs below the flat stumpless scars, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1–3 sessile or shortly pedicelled (up to 0.5 mm.) spikelets, with or without an indistinct oblong stipe up to 0.5 mm.; bristles glabrous, the longest 6–15 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly lanceolate, 6–12 mm. long, acute to acuminate; lower glume minute or suppressed; upper glume up to 1.5 mm. long; lower lemma 1/3–2/3 as long as the spikelet, barren; upper lemma as long as the spikelet, membranous.
    Habitat
    In swamps; 1800–2700 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T2
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 10-150 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 4-30 cm long; 2-10 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-15 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; scaberulous; glabrous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-2 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 3-6 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 7-15 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute, or acuminate; 6-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute, or acuminate; 6-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.05 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume ovate; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 0.8-1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 6-10 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 3 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles connate below.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical and east tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial, with long stout stolons and rhizomes forming a low matted sward, or with tall ascending culms; culms 10–150 cm. high, ascending from a creeping base.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 4–30 cm. long, 2–10 mm. wide, flat or folded.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 2–15 cm. long, often enclosed below by the uppermost sheath; rhachis with shallow angular ribs below the flat stumpless scars, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1–2 subsessile spikelets, without a distinct stipe; bristles glabrous, the longest 7–15 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly lanceolate, 6–10 mm. long, acute to acuminate; lower glume minute, up to 0.5 mm., upper glume 1/4–1/3 the length of the spikelet; lower lemma from 4/5 to as long as the spikelet, ♂ or barren, the upper similar in texture.
    Habitat
    In swamps; also semi-cultivated around habitations, being gathered and burnt to yield salt from the ashes; 1400–2600 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T2 T7 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

    Introduced into:

    Burundi

    Cenchrus riparius (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1976 Bogdan, A. [AB4179], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489778
    Mar 1, 1976 Edwards, D.C. [1680], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489770
    Mar 1, 1976 Edwards, D.C. [1680], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489781
    Bogdan, A. [AB3220], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489776
    Bogdan, A. [AB2792], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489782
    Bogdan, A. [AB4456], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489777
    Bogdan, A. [AB4110], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489780
    Bogdan, A. [AB5362], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489784
    Bogdan, A. [AB3454], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489768
    Bogdan, A. [2790], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489772
    Bogdan, A. [AB3235], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489774
    Schimper [84], Ethiopia Pennisetum riparium K000281188 isotype
    Schimper [84], Ethiopia Pennisetum riparium K000281189 isotype
    Schimper [84], Ethiopia Pennisetum riparium K000281190 isotype
    Linton, A. [171], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489775
    Dowson, W.J. [562], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000281210 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1227], Uganda Pennisetum riparium K000281212 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1227], Uganda Pennisetum riparium K000281211 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1227], Uganda Pennisetum riparium K000281213 holotype
    Battiscombe, E. [507], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000281209 holotype
    Edwards, D.C. [1477], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489785
    Edwards, D.C. [1648], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489769
    Kabuye, C.H.S. [101], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489771
    Kahurananga, J. [2868], Kenya Pennisetum riparium K000489773

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0