1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus squamulatus (Fresen.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to Tanzania.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rootstock evident. Culms 30-200 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 15-30 cm long; 2-17 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; curved; 5-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis terete; pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2-5 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 6-12 mm long; base obtuse; base pilose. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles subequal to outer; terete; flexible; ciliate. Pedicels 1-3 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-7.5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes membranous; 1-6 mm long; acuminate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-7.5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes membranous; 1-6 mm long; acuminate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; exserted from glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 0.25 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; 0-1 -veined; without lateral veins; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; 4.5-7 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat; ciliolate. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles connate below.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical and east tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial with stout rootstock; culms 30–200 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 40 cm. long, 2–17 mm. wide, with a filiform tip.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 5–25 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical with short peduncle-stumps, puberulous to pubescent; involucre enclosing 3–6 spikelets, one of them hermaphrodite the rest ♂, all raised upon pedicels 1–3 mm. long; bristles, or at least the inner, loosely ciliate, subequal, 6–12 mm. long.
    Male
    Male spikelets lanceolate, laterally compressed, 3.5–7.5 mm. long; lower glume linear, up to 1.5 mm. long; upper glume 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet, acuminate; lower lemma almost as long as the spikelet (rarely only 1/2 as long), barren, membranous, acute; upper lemma similar to the lower.
    Spikelets
    Bisexual spikelet narrowly lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 4.5–7 mm. long; lower glume tiny or suppressed; upper glume and lower lemma ovate, the former 1/4, the latter 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet; upper lemma subcoriaceous, acuminate. Male spikelets lanceolate, laterally compressed, 3.5–7.5 mm. long; lower glume linear, up to 1.5 mm. long; upper glume 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet, acuminate; lower lemma almost as long as the spikelet (rarely only 1/2 as long), barren, membranous, acute; upper lemma similar to the lower.
    Hermaphrodite
    Bisexual spikelet narrowly lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 4.5–7 mm. long; lower glume tiny or suppressed; upper glume and lower lemma ovate, the former 1/4, the latter 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet; upper lemma subcoriaceous, acuminate.
    Habitat
    Rocky slopes in open deciduous bushland; 900–2100 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K6 K7 T1 T2

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania

    Cenchrus squamulatus (Fresen.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1976 Webster, M.M. [K124], Kenya Pennisetum squamulatum K000489764
    Bogdan, A. [AB3287], Kenya Pennisetum squamulatum K000489765
    Schimper [851], Ethiopia Pennisetum squamulatum K000281242 isotype
    Schimper Pennisetum squamulatum K000281243 isotype
    Schimper [315], Ethiopia Pennisetum squamulatum K000281245 syntype
    Schimper [315], Ethiopia Pennisetum squamulatum K000281246 syntype
    Schimper [315], Ethiopia Pennisetum squamulatum K000281244 syntype
    Napper, D.M. [1733], Kenya Pennisetum squamulatum K000489766
    Napper, D.M. [1288], Kenya Pennisetum squamulatum K000489767

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0