1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus unisetus (Nees) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 0.6–4 m. high, typically robust and 2–15 mm. in diam. at the base.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae (5)10–30 cm. wide, broadly linear to linear-lanceolate, often falsely petiolate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles 2–4 cm. long, slender, axillary and gathered into a copious false inflorescence; rhachis with rounded ribs and distinct peduncle stumps, minutely pubescent; involucre reduced to a single bristle subtending each spikelet; bristle (2.5)7–40 mm. long, glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–3 mm. long.
    Glume
    Glumes 0.2–0.5 mm. long, obtuse to emarginate, or rarely the superior up to 0.8 mm. long and subacute.
    Lemma
    Lemmas as long as spikelet, membranous.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; robust; 60-400 cm long; 2-15 mm diam. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Collar glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-blade base without a false petiole, or with a false petiole. Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate; 20-60 cm long; (5-)10-30 mm wide; flaccid.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate. Inflorescence a panicle; terminal and axillary. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-4 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis puberulous. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; in one whorl; 1 in principal whorl; (2.5-)7-40 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-3 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-3 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.2-0.5 mm long; 0.1 length of spikelet; hyaline; pallid; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex emarginate, or truncate, or obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 0.2-0.5(-0.8) mm long; 0.1-0.2 length of spikelet; hyaline; pallid; without keels; 0 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex emarginate, or truncate, or obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; scabrous; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-3 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex obtuse.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: Papuasia.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial; culms typically robust, 0.6–4 m. high, 2–15 mm. diameter at base.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broadly linear to linear-lanceolate, mostly 20–60 cm. long, (5–)10–30 mm. wide, often falsely petiolate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles numerous, axillary, slender, 2–4 cm. long, gathered into a copious leafy false panicle; rhachis with rounded ribs and distinct peduncle-stumps, minutely pubescent; involucre reduced to a single bristle beneath each spikelet; bristle glabrous, (2.5–)7–40 mm. long, often purplish.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic, 2–3 mm. long; glumes 0.2–0.5 mm. long, truncate, emarginate or obtuse, rarely the upper subacute and up to 0.8 mm.; lemmas as long as the spikelet, membranous, scaberulous, the lower barren.
    Habitat
    In deciduous bushland and wooded grassland, favouring moist or shady places; 300–2300 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and South AfricaYemen K1 K3 K5 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    New Caledonia, New Guinea

    Cenchrus unisetus (Nees) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2004 Gosline, G. [281], Cameroon Pennisetum unisetum K000746250
    Jun 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [154], Cameroon Pennisetum unisetum K000107906
    Kirk, Malawi Pennisetum unisetum K000281291 holotype
    Schimper [262], Ethiopia Pennisetum unisetum K000281232
    Schimper [262], Ethiopia Pennisetum unisetum K000281233
    Schimper [262], Ethiopia Pennisetum unisetum K000281230
    Bidgood, S. [5245], Tanzania Pennisetum unisetum K000190473
    Kotschy [13], Sudan Pennisetum unisetum K000281231 Unknown type material
    Drège, South Africa Pennisetum unisetum K000281271 isotype
    Drège, South Africa Pennisetum unisetum K000281270 isotype
    Harris, T. [251], Mozambique Pennisetum unisetum K000613326
    Timberlake, J. [5313], Malawi Pennisetum unisetum K000614659
    Scholz [178], Burkina Faso Pennisetum unisetum K000212078
    Shironen, J. [244], Burkina Faso Pennisetum unisetum K000212077
    Kmoch [163], Burkina Faso Pennisetum unisetum K000212079

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 130 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0