1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Africa to Caucasus and Indian Subcontinent.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-200 cm long; woody. Lateral branches fastigiate. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 30-60 cm long; 7-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; continuous, or interrupted; 8-30 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; puberulous, or pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 1-3(-5) in the cluster; 1 sessile. Involucre composed of bristles; 15-30 mm long; base bluntly stipitate; base 0.5-1.5 mm long. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; 15-30 mm long; terete; flexible; plumose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.25-0.4 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume oblong; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; setaceously attenuate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; chartaceous; without keel. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex setaceously attenuate. Palea chartaceous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; anther tip apiculate.
    Distribution
    Africa: north and northeast tropical. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Pacific: northwestern. South America: Caribbean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fl Pak 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Egypt, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Leeward Is., Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, New Guinea, Trinidad-Tobago

    Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Schimper, W. [115], Egypt Pennisetum sinaicum K000731189
    Jan 1, 1960 McNeill [350], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731174
    Jan 1, 1960 McNeill [439], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731175
    Jan 1, 1960 Davis [D28512], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731176
    Jan 1, 1957 Polunin, O. [5206], Nepal Pennisetum orientale K000731208
    Jan 1, 1957 Polunin, O. [3983], Nepal Pennisetum orientale K000731209
    Jan 1, 1957 Stainton. [7032], Nepal Pennisetum orientale K000731207
    Coode, M.J.E. [721], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731170
    Collenette, I.S. [4401], Saudi Arabia Pennisetum orientale K000731186
    Collenette, I.S. [5242], Saudi Arabia Pennisetum orientale K000731187
    Dixon, S. [125/99], Pakistan Pennisetum orientale K000731200
    Stocks, J.E. [s.n.], Pakistan Pennisetum orientale K001056145
    Fischer [s.n.], Iran Pennisetum orientale K001056144
    Stewart, R.R. [9615], Pakistan Pennisetum orientale K000731201
    Stewart, R.R. [21446], Pakistan Pennisetum orientale K000731202
    Bove, N. [19], Egypt Pennisetum orientale K000244610
    Kralik [s.n.], Algeria Pennisetum orientale K000731195
    Podlech, D. [17856], Afghanistan Pennisetum orientale K000731191
    Podlech, D. [17564], Afghanistan Pennisetum orientale K000731192
    Podlech, D. [17781], Afghanistan Pennisetum orientale K000731193
    Koelz, W. [11750], Afghanistan Pennisetum orientale K000731190
    Koelz, W. [21005], India Pennisetum orientale K000731204
    Sinclair, I.W.J. [5600], Bhutan Pennisetum orientale K000731206
    s.coll [3720], Iraq Pennisetum orientale K000731181
    s.coll [SC94/14], Oman Pennisetum orientale K000731188
    s.coll [206], India Pennisetum orientale K000731205
    s.coll. [s.n.], India Pennisetum orientale K000245386 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India Pennisetum orientale K001056143
    Davis [19619], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731171
    Davis [37948], Turkey Pennisetum orientale K000731173
    Fawzi Karim [2363], Jordan Pennisetum orientale K000731177
    Pag [10186E], Iran Pennisetum orientale K000731182
    Soder, I. [338], Iran Pennisetum orientale K000731184
    Karimi [9497], Iran Pennisetum orientale K000731185
    Muhammad, R. [94-1], Pakistan Pennisetum orientale K000731194
    Koul, K.K. [K109], India Pennisetum orientale K000731199

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 128 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0