1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus violaceus (Lam.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to Sahel.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 30-300 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 15-100 cm long; 3-25 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2.5-20 cm long; 0.8-2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis terete; pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-2 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 4-8 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; terete; flexible; plumose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure, or one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume oblate; 1-3.5 mm long; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1.5-6 mm long; 0.33-0.9 length of spikelet; chartaceous; (1-)3-5 -veined; eciliate on margins; obtuse. Fertile lemma lanceolate, or ovate; 5-6.5 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat; eciliate. Lemma apex obtuse, or acute. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1.5-2.5 mm long; anther tip penicillate. Styles connate below.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate, or ellipsoid; dorsally compressed; 2-3 mm long; obtuse.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, and northeast tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Brunken.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, 30–120 cm. high
    Note
    A very variable species, divisible into a profusion of indistinct subordinate taxa
    Ecology
    A weed of roadsides and fallow land.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual weed 60–120 cm. high
    Note
    Perhaps not distinct from the preceding (Pennisetum violaceum).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Morocco

    Native to:

    Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan

    Introduced into:

    Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central

    Cenchrus violaceus (Lam.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 28, 1989 Diallo, D. [252], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212101
    Mar 25, 1970 Kotschy [274], Sudan Pennisetum violaceum K000281178
    Aug 1, 1962 Rossetti, C. [123], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212095
    Aug 1, 1962 Rossetti, C. [190], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212096
    Feb 1, 1961 Chevalier, A.J.B. [3], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212098
    Michelmore, A.P.G., Sudan Pennisetum violaceum K000281179 holotype
    Chevalier, A. [33824], Senegal Pennisetum violaceum K000281304
    Kotschy [234], Sudan Pennisetum violaceum K000281176 Unknown type material
    Kotschy [234], Sudan Pennisetum violaceum K000281177
    Hagerup, O. [340], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000281307 isotype
    Golding, F. [22], Nigeria Pennisetum violaceum K000281300 holotype
    Golding, F. [22], Nigeria Pennisetum violaceum K000281301 holotype
    Jardin, Guinea Pennisetum violaceum K000281303
    Roger, Senegal Pennisetum violaceum K000281306 holotype
    Roger, Senegal Pennisetum violaceum K000281305 holotype
    Trabut, L., Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000281308
    Trabut, L. [s.n.], Algeria Pennisetum violaceum K000244614
    Rossetti, C. [163], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212097
    Rogeon, J.-.F. [8], Mali Pennisetum violaceum K000212099

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 130 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.

    Sources

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0