1. Family: Stemonuraceae Kårehed
    1. Genus: Medusanthera Seem.
      1. Medusanthera malayana Utteridge

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Malaysia.

    [KBu]

    Utteridge, T.M.A. Kew Bull (2011) 66: 49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-011-9266-z

    Type
    Typus: Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Kelantan, S. Perias near K. May, [5°2'N 101°46'E], alt. 1000 ft, 20 July 1967 (fr.), Whitmore FRI 4127 (holotypus KEP; isotypi A, K, L, SING).
    Habit
    Tree to 10 m, d.b.h 2.5 – 12 cm
    Indumentum
    Indumentum of simple appressed hairs, translucent, colourless to ginger-brown (on all parts), 0.06 – 0.13 mm long (see description of specific structures for distribution)
    Branches
    Branches 3 – 3.5 mm in diameter, densely hairy soon glabrous, drying dark brown to grey
    Leaves
    Leaves coriaceous, narrowly oblong to narrowly obovate, 14 – 20.1 × 3.2 – 5.6 cm, apex acute to very shortly attenuate, base obtuse cuneate to rounded; ad- and abaxial lamina glabrous, lamina drying dull brown below, glossy brown above; midrib adaxially sulcate and sparsely hairy to glabrous, abaxially prominent and sparsely hairy to glabrous; secondary veins brochidodromus, rarely enclosed by secondary arches, 10 – 14 (– 19), glabrous, prominent ad- and abaxially; tertiary veins prominent, random reticulate; petioles 15 – 19 (– 22.5) mm long, hairy on the adaxial surface, otherwise glabrous
    Flowers
    Staminate flowers pentamerous, rarely tetramerous, calyx gamosepalous, crateriform, 0.6 – 1.1 mm long, shallowly 5-lobed, glabrous; petals white, 2.2 – 3.2 mm long, glabrous; stamens with anthers 0.5 – 0.75 mm long, filaments narrowly elliptic, 1.25 – 1.7 mm long, sparsely or densely hairy with linear, membranous hairs 0.15 – 0.75 mm long on the ad- and abaxial surface of the filaments immediately below the anthers; pistillode semi-spherical, 0.35 – 0.5 × 0.4 – 0.55 mm Pistillate flowers not seen
    Inflorescences
    Pistillate inflorescences as staminate inflorescences except: primary axis 11 – 29.5 mm long with 1 – 4 first order branches only, densely hairy Staminate inflorescences axillary, compound racemose with ultimate branches terminating in a cyme or irregular cyme, primary axis 8.5 – 15.5 mm long with 2 – 3 first order branches regularly spaced along the primary axis, branched to 2 orders, sparsely hairy; flowers sessile
    Fruits
    Fruits oblong, truncate at both ends, glabrous; when dry putamen becoming ± curved at maturity, 25.7 – 27.4 × 9 – 9.8 mm and 5 – 7.6 mm thick [immature fruit from Whitmore FRI 4127: 16 – 19 × 6.5 – 10 mm and 1.8 – 2.1 mm thick] (dimensions include drupe and appendage), apex of drupe recurving, putamen with a 3 – 6 longitudinal ridges on the convex side only, and with a single conspicuous groove along the centre of the concave side; when fresh pulviniform appendage pink or yellow
    Distribution
    Endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. Map 1.
    Ecology
    Collected from low montane forest on ridges with peaty soil; 180 – 305 m.
    Conservation
    This species is only known from three collections, but is very distinctive, especially in fruit, and it is therefore surprising that it has not been collected more often, suggesting that it is only occasionally encountered by collectors. The species has a low EOO (2043 km2) and this, together with the low number of collections and ongoing habitat conversion especially in montane forests in the region (see Soh et al. 2006), suggest a rating of Endangered (EN 1ab(iii)).
    Note
    Kochummen identified the two collections cited here as Medusanthera laxiflora, and treated them as M. laxiflora in his Tree Flora of Malaya account (Kochummen 1978). This common species, however, is restricted to eastern Malesia (Philippines to the Solomon Islands), and differs from M. malayana in several characters including the elliptic to oblong, chartaceous leaves (not narrowly oblong/ovate and coriaceous), and the umbellate inflorescence structure (not compound racemose). Named for its geographical distribution. "Medusanthera malayana is a very distinct member of Medusanthera on account of the coriaceous, narrowly oblong to narrowly obovate leaves (14 – 20.1 × 3.2 – 5.6 cm), and especially the compound racemose, inflorescence structure, rather than the umbellate structure found in the remaining species of the genus. Field notes describe the fruits either as ""green with a small, yellow fleshy appendage"" (Whitmore FRI 4127), or ""with a pink fleshy appendage"" (Teo & Wintz KL 4814); more field observations are needed to clarify the colour of the mature fruits when fresh. Medusanthera gracilis, the only other species of Medusanthera in Peninsular Malaysia, differs from M. malayana in having narrowly elliptic, chartaceous leaves (not narrowly oblong/ovate and coriaceous), umbellate inflorescence structure (not compound racemose), and much smaller fruits up to 20 mm long (not 25.7 – 27.4 mm long) which have a white appendage when mature (not coloured pink or yellow)."

    Distribution

    Medusanthera malayana Utteridge appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 66: 69 (2011)

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    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0