1. Resedaceae Martinov

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Resedaceae, J. Elffers And P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs
Leaves
Leaves scattered or fasciculate, simple to pinnatipartite; stipules small, gland-like
Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, spicate or racemose
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, usually irregular
Calyx
Calyx persistent or deciduous, 4–8-partite
Corolla
Petals mostly 4–7, usually unequal, small, deciduous or persistent, free or slightly coherent, laciniate, simple or clawed, often having a membranous appendage at the base of the limb
Nectaries
Disc usually present, often dilated on the adaxial side
Androecium
Stamens 3–40, perigynous or inserted on the disc, often declinate, free or monadelphous at the base, not covered by the petals in bud; anthers 2-celled, introrse
Gynoecium
Ovules 1–?, inserted on parietal placentas or at the base of the ovary Ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, of 2–6 free or connate carpels
Fruits
Fruit a closed or open capsule, indehiscent, rarely baccate or of as many follicles as carpels
Seeds
Seeds mostly numerous, reniform or hippocrepi­form, exalbuminous, with a curved embryo
[FZ]

Resedaceae, P. Taylor. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs
Leaves
Leaves alternate or fasciculate, simple to pinnatipartite, stipules small
Flowers
Flowers in terminal spikes or racemes, bisexual or rarely unisexual, usually zygomorphic
Calyx
Calyx persistent or deciduous, 4–8-partite
Corolla
Petals 4–7, free or slightly coherent, usually unequal, simple or laciniate
Nectaries
Disk usually present, often dilated on the adaxial side
Androecium
Stamens 3–40, perigynous or inserted on the disk, often declinate, free or monadelphous at the base, not covered by the petals in bud; anthers 2-thecous, introrse
Gynoecium
Ovules 1–?, inserted on parietal placentas or at the base of the ovary Ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, of 2–6 free or connate carpels
Fruits
Fruit a closed or open capsule, rarely baccate or of as many follicles as carpels
Seeds
Seeds mostly numerous, reniform or hippocrepiform, without endosperm and with a curved embryo
[NTK]

Souza, V.C. (2013). Neotropical Resedaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annual , biennial or perennial herbs, less frequently small shrubs, indumentum of unicellular hairs often present.  Leaves spirally arranged, simple , usually lobed or pinnatifid , with minute stipules.  Inflorescences terminal , racemes or spikes, simple or compound Flowers zygomorphic or almost actinomorphic , usually bisexual , rarely unisexual, hypogynous or rarely perigynous ; sepals 4-6(-8), valvate or almost imbricate , petals (1-)2-6(-8) or absent, valvate , white or yellow, appendaged or not (Oligomeris Cambess.), connate or more frequently free and clawed, usually fringed; stamens (3-)16-22, rarely, more base of filaments surrounded by disc (except Oligomeris) and fused with them, anthers bithecate, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; oary syncarpous or rarely apocarpous, with (2-)3-4(-7) carpels, superior , unilocular, with parietal placentation, ovules many by carpel , rarely only one.  Fruits usually capsules, less frequently berry like or split into carpidia.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Resedaceae are centered on warm temperate subtropical areas, mainly around Mediterranean region, extending into tropics and the temperate zone. In the New World where only Oligomeris occurs species are found from South U.S.A. to North Mexico. The only native species (but see Martín-Bravo et al., 2009) in the Neotropics is Oligomerislinifolia (Vahl) J.F. Macbr., found in desert areas in Northern Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Sonora).
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Herbs
  • Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous.
  • Petals yellow, free, clawed and fringed.
  • Ovary syncarpous.
  • Ovules many per carpel.
  • Fruit a capsule.
  • Seeds arillate.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Many of the most common family characters in Resedaceae are absent in Oligomeris, the only genus in the Neotropics.  So, although Resedaceae almost always have a conspicuous nectary and appendaged petals, they are absent in this genus.
  • Other distinguishing characters include: leaves spirally arranged, simple; small stipules (sometimes not interpreted as stipules); racemose inflorescences; ovarysuperior, unilocular, with parietal placentation.
General Description
Status
  • In addition to the native Oligomeris, ResedaodorataL. (garden mignonette), probably native in the North Africa, is cultivated in Neotropics as an ornamental.
Number of genera
  • One: Oligomeris Cambess .
Notes on delimitation
  • Resedaceae are currently divided in to six genera (Caylusea A.St.-Hil., Ochradenus Delile, Oligomeris Cambess., Randonia Coss., Reseda L. and Sesamoides Ortega), but Reseda is not monophyletic, unless it includes all the others, except Caylusea and Sesamoides (Martín-Bravo et al. 2007).  The generic circumscription therefore needs revising.
  • The family is included in Brassicales as a sister group to Gyrostemonaceae according to the APG III (2009).
Literature
Important literature

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161: 105-121.Kubitzki, K. 1998. Resedaceae. In: K. Kubitzki, & C. Bayer (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. V, Dicotyledons; Malvales, Capparales, and non-betalain Caryophyllales, pp. 334-338. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Martín-Bravo, S., Meimberg, H., Luceño, M., Märkl, W., Valcárcel, V., Bräuchler, C., Vargas, P., Heubl, G. 2007. Molecular systematics and biogeography of Resedaceae based on ITS and trnL-F sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 1105-1120.

Martín-Bravo, S., Vargas, P., Luceño, M. 2009. Is Oligomeris (Resedaceae) indigenous to North America? Molecular evidence for a natural colonization from the Old World. Am. J. Bot. 96(2): 507-518.

[FWTA]

Resedaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs with watery juice, rarely woody
Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple or pinnately divided; stipules small, gland-like
Flowers
Flowers mostly zygomorphic, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, racemose or spicate
Calyx
Galyx persistent, mostly zygomorphic, 4–7-lobed, imbricate
Corolla
Petals small and inconspicuous or none, valvate, free or slightly coherent, often laciniate, sometimes with a scale at the base
Nectaries
Disk present, often dilated on the adaxial side
Androecium
Stamens 3–40, perigynous or on the disk, not covered by the petals in bud; filaments free or united at the base; anthers 2-celled, introrse
Gynoecium
Ovary of 2–6 free or connate carpels, closed or gaping at the top, each carpel with a separate stigma; ovules numerous on parietal placentas or at the base of the ovary
Fruits
Fruit a gaping capsule or baccate
Seeds
Seeds numerous, kidney- or horse-shoe-shaped; endosperm absent; embryo curved or folded

Images

Resedaceae Martinov appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Tekhno-Bot. Slovar 541. 1820 [3 Aug 1820] (1820)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0