1. Bixaceae Kunth

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Bixaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Shrubs or small trees with coloured juice
Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, palminerved, stipulate
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, medium-sized, showy, paniculate
Calyx
Sepals 5, imbricate, deciduous, with a large fleshy gland at the base outside
Corolla
Petals 5, large, imbricate, without a scale at the base
Nectaries
Disk none
Androecium
Stamens numerous, hypogynous; filaments free; anthers horse-shoe-shaped, opening by short slits at the top
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentas; ovules numerous; style slender, recurved in bud; stigma 2-lobed
Fruits
Fruit a densely echinate-setose or smooth capsule, 2-valved; valves thick, with the placentas in the middle
Seeds
Seeds obovoid; testa rather fleshy, red; endosperm copious; embryo large; cotyledons broad, incurved at the apex
[FTEA]

Bixaceae, D. M. Bridson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Habit
Trees or shrubs
Leaves
Leaves spiral; blades simple, entire, pendulous to perpendicularly hinged from the long erect petioles; petioles with a swelling (pulvinus) at the apex and base; stipules paired, very quickly caducous, leaving a horseshoe-shaped, scale-like scar with a sessile gland on either side of the petiole-base
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, in terminal corymbs or panicles
Receptacle
Receptacle with sessile glands around the rim
Calyx
Sepals (4–)5, free, imbricate in bud, caducous on expansion of the flower
Corolla
Petals (4–)5(–7), free, imbricate in bud
Androecium
Stamens numerous, inserted on the annular disc; filaments free; anthers with 2 horseshoe-shaped thecae, dehiscing by short slits on the apical bend
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1-locular; ovules numerous on 2(–3) parietal placentas; style simple, elongated; stigma shortly 2-lobed
Fruits
Fruit an echinate, setose or smooth capsule, loculicidally bivalved (rarely 3-valved)
Seeds
Seeds numerous; testa fleshy; endosperm copious; embryo large
[FZ]

Bixaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Habit
Shrubs or small trees with coloured juice
Leaves
Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple, palmatinerved, stipulate
Flowers
Flowers in terminal corymbs or panicles, bisexual, actinomorphic; pedicels with 5–6 apical glands
Calyx
Sepals 4–5, free, imbricate in bud, falling off when the flower expands
Corolla
Petals 4–7, free, imbricate in bud
Androecium
Stamens ?, inserted on an annular disk; anthers opening by pore-like slits
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, usually bristly, 1-locular, multiovulate with 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma 2-lobed
Fruits
Fruit a densely echinate-setose or smooth capsule, 2-valved; valves thick with the placentas in the middle
Seeds
Seeds numerous; testa fleshy, densely studded with red glands; endosperm copious; embryo large
[FTEA]

Cochlospermaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Habit
Trees, shrubs or rhizomatous herbs or subshrubs, often deciduous, with coloured juice and sometimes containing gum
Leaves
Leaves alternate, palmati-lobed, the lobes toothed or ± entire, often with domatia in the axils of the main nerves; stipules present, caducous
Flowers
Flowers ± regular (very slightly zygomorphic), showy, hermaphrodite, paniculate or racemose, mostly golden-yellow
Calyx
Sepals 4–5, free, imbricate, deciduous
Corolla
Petals 4–5, free, alternating with the sepals, imbricate or contorted
Androecium
Stamens numerous, the filaments free, equal or some longer than others; anthers 2-thecous, basifixed, linear, opening by introrse short often confluent pore-like slits
Gynoecium
Ovary 3-, 4- or 5-carpellate, 1-locular with plate-like structures intruding into the locule, which is ramified with 3, 4 or 5 lobes corresponding to the number of carpels so that apical and basal sections appear axile and central sections appear parietal; ovules numerous, anatropous; style simple, with small stigma
Fruits
Capsule (2–)3–5-valved, the valves of the membranous endocarp separating from and alternating with those of the epicarp
Seeds
Seeds glabrous or covered with woolly hairs, straight or mostly cochleate-reniform, with copious oil-rich endosperm; embryo large, conforming to the shape of the seed, with broad cotyledons
Distribution
A family of 2 genera and about 25 (but sometimes estimated as high as 40) species in the tropics and southern United States. Following Hutchinson (G.F.P. 2: 233 (1967)) the genus Sphaerosepalum Bak. has been excluded from the family
[FWTA]

Cochlospermaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Trees, shrubs, or rhizomatous subshrubs, with coloured juice
Leaves
Leaves alternate, palmatilobed, stipulate
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, showy, paniculate or racemose
Calyx
Sepals 5, imbricate, deciduous
Corolla
Petals 5, imbricate or subcontorted, alternate with the sepals
Androecium
Stamens numerous, the filaments free, equal or some longer than the others; anthers 2-celled, linear, opening by terminal short often confluent pore-like slits
Gynoecium
Ovary 1-celled, with parietal placentas projecting into the cell, or perfectly 3-celled; ovules numerous; style simple, with minutely denticulate stigma
Fruits
Fruit a 3–5-valved capsule
Seeds
Seeds glabrous or covered with woolly hairs, straight or cochleate-reniform; endosperm copious; embryo conforming to the shape of the seed, large; cotyledons broad

Images

Bixaceae Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Malvac., Buttner., Tiliac. 17. 1822 [20 Apr 1822] (1822)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0