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  1. Caryocaraceae Voigt

    1. This family is accepted.

[NTK]

Prance, G.T. (2009). Neotropical Caryocaraceae.

Morphology
Description

Large trees or more rarely shrubs or suffrutices, with opposite branches which are frequently horizontal. Stipules absent or present and soon caducous Leaves opposite or alternate , usually long- petiolate but very rarely almost sessile , trifoliolate ;  leaflets with short petioles, pinnately nerved, margins serrate , crenulate , dentate or rarely entire . Often with 2-4 stipels at base of leaflets, stipels persistent or caducous , sometimes with 2 large and 2 small stipels, absent in Anthodiscus G.Mey. Inflorescences of terminal racemes with a short rachis often rather corymbose;  pedicels articulate at apex . Bracts seldom developed, usually none, bracteoles lateral , alternate , small, subpersistent or caducous Flowers hermaphrodite , large in Caryocar L., small in Anthodiscus. Calyx distinctly 5(-6)- lobed , imbricate or with very small reduced indistinct dentate lobes. Petals 5 or rarely 6, imbricate , fused at base together with base of filaments and often caducous with filaments or fused at apex to form a caducous calyptra. Stamens numerous, 57-750, exceeding petals; filaments bent into an S in bud , those on interior shorter and sterile or with smaller anthers, often with a row of short sterile staminodes on interior,  basal portion of which form a glandular nectar secreting tissue or interior filaments erect and smaller in bud and outer filaments recurved towards apex ; apical portion of filaments tuberculate and entire length of smaller filaments sometimes tuberculate ;  anthers bilocular , oblong , introrse, dorsifixed or basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent . Ovary 4-locular, or rarely 6-locular, with a single ovule in each loculus, 8-15 locular in Anthodiscus. Styles 4 or 8-12, long filamentous. Fruit 4-6 or 8-15 locular, a drupe with from 1-4 loculi developing, and dehiscing into 1 seeded cocci or when 8-15 locular with most loculi developing seeds;  mesocarp thick and fatty or fleshy endocarp woody , muricate , tuberculate or spinous on exterior; or with a thick woody ridged pericarp , seeds reniform or subreniform, the embryo with a straight to arcuate radicle or laterally compressed . Germination hypogeal, first leaves opposite (in 2 species observed). N = 23.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • Generally placed in the Theales by almost all systems and thought to be close to Theaceae.
  • The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) place it in the order Malpighiales that also includes the Theaceae, but they are not considered close within the order.
  • They are thought to have diverged from other Malpighiales in the Cretaceous-Albian, 111-100 million years before present.
Number of genera
  • Two genera in family, both Neotropical: Anthodiscus and Caryocar.
Status
  • Native and endemic.
General notes
  • The fruit of some species of Caryocar are eaten and the genus also furnishes a good wood.
  • Caryocar is bat pollinated.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Confined to the Neotropics.
  • Caryocar from Costa Rica to Central and eastern Brazil and Bolivia.
  • Anthodiscus mainly in Western Amazonia and Venezuela with one species in eastern Brazil.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Stamens with tubercules on filaments.
  • Trifoliolate leaves often with serrate margins in both genera.
  • Differs from Theaceae in both these characters.
  • Many stamens.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Caryocaraceae

1. Leaves opposite; calyx deeply lobed; ovary and fruit 4 (-6) locular; styles 4; radicle of embryo straight ...Caryocar
1. Leaves alternate; calyx truncately dentate and reduced; ovary and fruit 8-20-locular; styles 8-20; radicle of embryo twisted ...Anthodiscus    

Literature
Important literature

Prance, G. T. & Silva, M. F. da, 1973. Monograph of Caryocaraceae. Flora Neotropica 12: 1-75.

Prance, G. T. 1987. An update on the taxonomy and distribution of the Caryocaraceae. Opera Botânica 92: 179-183.       

Images

Accepted Genera

Other Data

Caryocaraceae Voigt appears in other Kew resources:

Bibliography

First published in Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 88. 1845 (1845)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0