According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Dichapetalaceae, A. R. Torre. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963
- Shrublets or erect or scandent shrubs or rarely trees
- Leaves alternate, subsessile or petiolate, simple, entire, often provided with glands at the base and below the apex; stipules caducous or persistent
- Inflorescence of cymes, fascicles or glomerules, often axillary
- Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual by abortion
- Sepals 5, ± connate below
- Petals 5, equal (in actinomorphic flowers) or unequal (in zygomorphic flowers), often 2-dentate, 2-lobed or 2-fid at the apex, sometimes united with the stamens at the base
- Stamens (4) 5, all fertile or 2–3 fertile and 2 staminodes; anthers introrse
- Disk annular or often divided into 5 squamulous hypogynous glands, distinct or connate
- Ovary superior or semi-inferior, composed of 2–3 carpels, 2–3-locular, with 2 pendulous ovules in each loculus; style simple, 2–3-lobulate or 2–3-fid at the apex
- Fruits drupaceous, with 3 (often reduced to 2 or 1) ± separate mericarps, 1–2-seeded
- Seeds without endosperm; cotyledons containing starch
According to Neotropikey[NTK]
Prance, G.T. (2009). Neotropical Dichapetalaceae.
Trees, shrubs, lianas, or suffruticose subshrubs. Stipules present but usually caducous , sometimes fimbriate . Leaves simple , alternate , entire , pinnately veined. Inflorescence corymbose-cymose of subcapitate, or the flowers fasciculate , axillary or more frequently attached to the petiole or rarely to the midrib . Flowers small, hermaphrodite or less frequently unisexual, actinomorphic to weakly zygomorphic ; pedicels often articulated. Petals 5, either free , imbricate and almost equal, or connate into a tube, with lobes equal or markedly unequal, lobes usually bifid at apex and frequently bicucullate or inflexed; often clawed at base. Stamens 5, all fertile or only 3 fertile, free or adnate to the corolla tube, with filaments or rarely anthers sessile ; anthers bilocular , dehiscing longitudinally. Disc of 5 equal or unequal hypogynous glands alternating with stamens, or united into a disc . Ovary superior , free , 2-3, locular, ovules anatropous, pendulous, paired at top of each loculus. Styles 2-3, free or more frequently connate nearly to apex , often recurved , stigma capitate or simple . Fruit a dry or rarely a fleshy drupe ; epicarp most frequently pubescent ; mesocarp thin; endocarp hard; 1-2 (-3) locular, loculi usually with only one seed developing; seed pendulous, without endosperm ; embryo large, erect .
Distribution in the Neotropics
- A tropical family of about 240 species in three genera, distributed throughout the lowland tropical regions of both hemispheres (but absent from Polynesia and Micronesia), extending into the subtropics in Africa and India.
Useful tips for generic identification
Key to genera of Neotropical Dichapetalaceae
1. Petals free and regular; stamens free; inflorescence with a long distict peduncle.... Dichapetalum
1. Petals connate or only 3 free; stamens adnate to corolla tube; inflorescences essile or almost so ... 2
2. Corolla with 5 equal obtuse lobes, shorter than tube; fertile stamens 5, anthers sessile on tube ... StephanopodiumDistinguishing characters (always present)
2. Corolla zygomorphic, lobes bifid and bicucullate, exceeding tube in length; fertile stamens 3 or 5, anthers on slender filaments ...Tapura
- The inflorescence is often borne on the petioles and rarely on the midrib.
- The petals are usually two-lobed and cucullate and dry black.
- Fimbriate stipules occur in some species of Dichapetalum Thouars.
- General Description
- Stephanopodium is endemic to the Neotropics.
- Dichapetalum and Tapura also occur in the Old World tropics.
- All three genera are native to the Neotropics.
- Some species are poisonous, especially to cattle.
- Three: Dichapetalum, Stephanopodium Poepp. & Endl., Tapura Aubl.
- The family has been variously placed, often in the Euphorbiales.
- Cronquist placed it in the Celastrales near to the Icacinaceae.
- Recent molecular work shows that it belongs in the Malpighiales and is very close to the Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae and Euphroniaceae.
Prance, G. T. 1972. Monograph of Dichapetalaceae. Flora Neotropica 10: 1-84.
Prance, G. T. 2001. Dichapetalaceae. Flora de Colombia 20: 1-62.
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Dichapetalaceae, F.J. Breteler (Agricultural University, Wageningen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1988
- Trees, shrubs, subshrubs or lianas
- Stipules present, caducous or persistent, simple, entire, or variously lobed or divided
- Leaves alternate, simple, entire, pinnately nerved, often glandular
- Inflorescences axillary, sometimes arranged on leafless axillary or terminal shoots, cymose, distinctly branched to subglobose, sessile to pedunculate, the peduncle free or adnate to petiole; bracts and bracteoles usually small
- Flowers small, actinomorphic to zygomorphic, (4–)5-merous, bisexual (Africa) to unisexual; pedicel usually articulate, the upper part (the true pedicel) absent to very distinct
- Sepals (4–)5, subequal to strongly unequal, imbricate, free or shortly united, rarely forming a tube
- Petals (4–)5, equal to very unequal, alternating with the sepals, free or nearly so, or, more often, united with the alternating stamens into a very short to distinct tube, entire or bilobed to bicucullate apically
- Androecium of 2–5 stamens and 0–3 staminodes, opposite the sepals; anthers dithecous, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits, usually with a distinct connective
- Sterile Parts
- Basal staminodes (disc-glands, disc-lobes, hypogynous glands) 1–5, opposite the petals, free or united into a disc, variously shaped
- Pistil 2–3(–4)-merous; ovary superior, with 2 collateral pendulous anatropous ovules in each locule, raphe ventral, obturator distinct or not; styles 2–3(–4), free or nearly so, more often almost completely united with free apical parts
- Fruit a drupe with 1–3(–4) 1-seeded free pyrenes, deeply lobed or not; exocarp dehiscent or indehiscent; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp indehiscent, usually with a distinct apical, and usually partly ventral, suture, pergamentaceous to woody or bony, hairy inside or not
- Seeds exalbuminous, rarely with some albumen; testa usually thin, glabrous, rarely hairy; cotyledons usually planoconvex
- Germination usually hypogeal, first pair of leaves opposite or alternate
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Chailletiaceae[FWTA]
Chailletiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958
- Small trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing
- Leaves alternate, simple; stipules present
- Flowers small, mostly hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic
- Sepals 5, free or partially connate, imbricate
- Petals mostly 2-lobed or 2-partite, free or united with the stamens into a tube
- Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, free or united; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise, the connective often dorsally thickened
- Hypogynous glands opposite to the petals, free or connate
- Ovary superior to quite inferior, 2–3-celled; style mostly simple, 2–3-fid at the apex; ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous
- Fruit a drupe, dry or rarely fleshy, sometimes the epicarp splitting
- Seeds without endosperm; embryo large, straight
First published in Fl. Bras. (Martius) 12(1): 365. 1886 [1 Apr 1886] (1886)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.