1. Escalloniaceae R.Br. ex Dumort.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Escalloniaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

Habit
Trees or shrubs
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate, rarely subopposite or subverticillate, usually glandular-serrate; stipules usually absent or minute
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or less often dioecious or polygamous, mostly in terminal or axillary racemes, panicles, or cymes; in one genus epiphyllous
Calyx
Sepals 4–5, mostly united at the base or rarely free, imbricate or valvate, often persistent
Corolla
Petals 4–5, free or rarely connate into a short tube, imbricate or valvate
Nectaries
Disk annular or with lobes alternating with the stamens
Androecium
Stamens (4–)5(–6), sometimes alternating with staminodes, perigynous, free; anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits
Gynoecium
Ovary superior or inferior, syncarpous or apocarpous, 1–6-locular; ovules with axile or parietal placentation; ovules numerous; styles 1–6, free or ± joined
Fruits
Fruit a capsule or berry
Seeds
Seeds few to many, with small or large embryo and copious endosperm
[FZ]

Escalloniaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Habit
Trees or shrubs
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate, rarely subopposite or subverticillate, usually glandular-serrate; stipules usually absent or minute
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or less often dioecious or polygamous, mostly in terminal or axillary racemes, panicles, or cymes; in one genus epiphyllous
Calyx
Sepals 4-5, mostly united at the base or rarely free, imbricate or valvate, often persistent
Corolla
Petals 4-5, free or rarely connate into a short tube, imbricate or valvate
Nectaries
Disk annular or with lobes alternating with the stamens
Androecium
Stamens (4)5(6), sometimes alternating with staminodes, perigynous, free; anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits
Gynoecium
Ovary superior or inferior, syncarpous or apocarpous, 1-6-locular; ovules with axile or parietal placentation; ovules numerous; styles 1-6, free or ± joined
Fruits
Fruit a capsule or berry
Seeds
Seeds few to many, with small or large embryo and copious endosperm
[NTK]

Maas, P.J.M. & Maas-van de Kamer, H. (2012). Neotropical Escalloniaceae.

Morphology
Description

Shrubs or trees, terrestrial, rarely epiphytic ; stems often with exfoliating bark ; stipules usually absent.  Leaves alternate , simple , margins entire or often with glandular teeth.  Inflorescences mostly terminal racemes or panicles, or axillary and of solitary flowers.  Flowers actinomophic, bisexual ; calyx campanulate , 5- lobed ; petals 5, free , imbricate , often spathulate ; stamens 5, free , anthers dithecal, longitudinally dehiscent , basifixed; intrastaminal disc present, surrounding the base of the style ; ovary inferior, 2-3-locular, placentation axile , ovules many, style 1, stigmas 1-3.  Fruits septicidal capsules.  Seeds many, small, striate .

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics

Worldwide, except Africa, the Escalloniaceae comprise 7 genera and 129 species, 2 genera and about 40 species in the Neotropics.

  • Escallonia Mutis ex L.f. (39 spp. of which 22 are found in the Neotropics) - Central America, Andean South America from Colombia to S Argentina, and SE Brazil.
  • Valdivia Remy (1 sp.) - in extra-neotropical Central Chile.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Leaves alternate and often with glandular teeth.
  • Flowers with an intrastaminal disc, calyxcampanulate, petals free, often spathulate, ovary inferior, 2-3-locular.
  • Fruit a capsule.
Other important characters
  • Sometimes epiphytic; barkexfoliating.
General Description
Status
  • The genus Escallonia is native in the Neotropics and the USA.
  • Valdivia is endemic to Central Chile.
General notes
  • Locally the wood of Escallonia is used for fuel, charcoal, and timber.
  • Escallonia species are cultivated throughout the world as ornamentals for their attractive leaves, exfoliatingbark, and sweet scent.
  • It is often dominant in Andean forests at high elevations.  The highest species diversity of Escallonia is found in Chile and Argentina.
Notes on delimitation
  • The family Escalloniaceae is placed in a monotypic order Escalloniales in the APG III classification (Stevens, 2008; APG III, 2009).  In the past it has been placed in Saxifragaceae (Sleumer 1968) and Grossulariaceae (Cronquist 1981); and Takhtajan (2009) placed it in the order Desfontainiales.
Literature
Important literature

A.P.G. III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 161: 105-121.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press. New York

Maas, P.J.M. & Westra, L.Y.Th. 2005. Neotropical Plant Families. A concise guide of vascular plants in the Neotropics. 3rd ed., p. 293. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Mori, S.A. 2004. Escalloniaceae. In: Smith, N.P., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W., and Heald, S.V.  (eds.). Flowering plants of the Neotropics. pp. 145-146. Princeton University Press, Oxford and Princeton.

Sleumer, H. 1968. Die Gattung Escallonia (Saxifragaceae). Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk. Ser. 2. 58(2): 1-146.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

Takhtajan, A. 1997. Flowering Plants. Second edition. Springer.

Images

Escalloniaceae R.Br. ex Dumort. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Anal. Fam. Pl. 35, 37. 1829 (1829)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0