1. Ebenaceae Gürke

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Trees or shrubs without milky latex, heartwood sometimes black (Ebony of commerce)
Leaves
Leaves nearly always alternate, exstipulate, entire
Flowers
Flowers actino-morphic, hypogynous, usually unisexual, but frequently with rudiments of other sex, solitary, fasciculate or cymose, rarely in false racemes, sometimes cauliflorous
Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, entire to deeply lobed, always persistent in fruit and usually accrescent
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, shortly to deeply lobed; tube often fleshy and constricted at throat; lobes contorted in bud
Androecium
Stamens from 2 to more than 100, epipetalous or borne on receptacle, exserted or included, filaments often very short, anthers usually apiculate, often 2 or more arising from a single filament
Gynoecium
Ovary syncarpous, each locule either with 2 ovules or divided by a false septum into 2 uni-ovulate compartments; styles distinct or basally connate, very rarely completely united; stigmas usually large and conspicuous; ovules pendulous from apex of locule
Fruits
Fruit a berry
Seeds
Seeds large; endosperm abundant, hard, sometimes ruminate; embryo half as long as the endosperm, with foliaceous cotyledons
[FTEA]

Ebenaceae, F. White and B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

Habit
Trees, shrubs or rarely subshrubs, dioecious, without latex; heartwood often black
Leaves
Leaves simple, usually alternate and entire or obscurely crenulate; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers regular, hypogynous, 3-8-merous, unisexual but generally with remnants of the other sex present, arranged in cymes, fascicles or simple to branched false-racemes or sometimes solitary; often cauliflorous; peduncles sometimes bracteate
Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, entire and truncate to deeply lobed, always persistent in fruiting state and usually accrescent
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, shortly to deeply lobed, the tube somewhat fleshy and constricted at the throat, the lobes contorted and overlapping to the right when viewed from side
Androecium
Stamens from (2-)3 to more than 100, epipetalous or borne on the receptacle, exserted or included; filaments often very short; anthers basifixed, usually apiculate and setulose, often unequal, occasionally 2 or more borne on one filament; rudimentary ovary variable in development, rarely ± lacking
Gynoecium
Ovary syncarpous of 2-8 carpels, each with 2 ovules and usually completely or incompletely divided by a false partition into 2, 1-ovuled locules; styles the same number as the carpels, distinct or joined at the base, very rarely completely fused; stigmas usually well developed; ovules apical, pendulous, anatropous, with 2 integuments; staminodes very variously developed, rarely absent
Nectaries
Disk present or absent
Fruits
Fruits usually berries, rarely with a tardy dehiscence
Seeds
Seeds large, usually encircled by a distinct peripheral vascular ring; hilum small, apical, obscure; testa coriaceous; endosperm abundant, hard and horny, smooth or ruminate; embryo mostly ± 1/2 the length of the seed; radicle large, superior; cotyledons leafy
[FZ]

Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Note
Note. The morphology, anatomy and cytology of the Ebenaceae have been studied more fully than those of many tropical families and have yielded much information of taxonomic interest. Hence, the following account is somewhat more detailed than is usual in Flora Zambesiaca. I am indebted to F. S. P. Ng, A. N. Caveney and J. Cassells for providing unpublished information, mostly on anatomy, and to R. B. Drummond, T. Müller, G. Pope and H. Wild for their comments on an early draft
Habit
Trees, shrubs or suffrutices without milky latex
Wood
Heartwood sometimes black
Leaves
Leaves simple, exstipulate, usually alternate and entire
Inflorescences
Inflorescence sometimes cauline, determinate, usually cymose or fasciculate but sometimes a simple or branched false raceme, or reduced to a solitary flower which usually terminates a bracteate peduncle
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, hypogynous, unisexual, but usually with rudiments of the other sex, 3–8–merous
Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, entire and truncate to deeply lobed, always persistent in fruit and usually accrescent
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, shortly to deeply lobed; tube sometimes fleshy and constricted at the throat; lobes contorted sintrorsely in bud
Nectaries
Disk present or absent
Androecium
Stamens from (2) 3 to more than 100, epipetalous or borne on receptacle, exserted or included; filaments often very short; anthers basifixed, usually apiculate and setulose, often of unequal size and 2 or more arising from a single filament
Gynoecium
Ovary syncarpous, 2–8–carpellary, each carpel bi–ovulate and usually completely or incompletely divided by a false septum into 2 uni–ovulate locules; styles equal in number to the carpels, distinct or basally connate, very rarely completely united; stigmas usually large and conspicuous; ovules apical, pendulous, anatropous, with 2 integuments
Sterile Parts
Staminodes very variable in development, rarely absent Pistillode very variable in development, rarely completely absent
Fruits
Fruit usually a berry, rarely showing tardy dehiscence
Seeds
Seeds large, with a distinct circum–peripheral vascular loop Hilum small, apical, inconspicuous Testa coriaceous (parenchymatous) Endosperm abundant, hard, horny, smooth or ruminate; embryo usually about half as long as the seed; radicle large, superior; cotyledons foliaceous

Images

Ebenaceae Gürke appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 4(1): 153. 1892 (1892)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0