1. Menyanthaceae Dumort.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Menyanthaceae, Barbara Mackinder. Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

Habit
Aquatic herbs, with tufted rootstock or horizontal creeping rhizomes
Leaves
Leaves floating or submersed, alternate or in a rosette, simple or compound, entire or crenulate; stipules small, rounded, scarious, or inconspicuous
Flowers
Flowers in panicles, racemes, fascicles or solitary; actinomorphic, generally 5-merous, hermaphrodite or unisexual
Calyx
Sepals free or almost so, imbricate in bud
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalus, often with a short tube, lobes membranous, often fimbricate or pilose
Androecium
Stamens as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them; anthers dithecous, opening by longitudinal slits
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, unilocular with 2(5) parietal placentas
Fruits
Fruit a capsule, dehiscent or not
Seeds
Seeds often numerous, with endosperm
[FTEA]

Menyanthaceae, Christopher Whitehouse. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

Habit
Aquatic or marsh herbs with a tufted rootstock or creeping rhizome
Leaves
Leaves floating or submerged, alternate, entire or trifoliate; petiole sheathing at the base
Flowers
Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, solitary, paired, racemose or fasciculate or in many-flowered cymes, panicles, or involucrate heads
Calyx
Calyx 5(-8)-lobed or -partite
Corolla
Corolla sympetalous, 5(-8)-lobed; lobes valvate or induplicate-valvate, margins or inside sometimes fimbriate or crested
Androecium
Stamens 5(-8), inserted towards the base of the tube or between the corolla-lobes; anthers 2-thecous, sagittate and versatile
Nectaries
Nectaries usually present, hypogynous
Gynoecium
Ovary superior to semi-inferior, 1-locular with 2(-5) parietal placentas; style 1, 2(-5)-fid at the apex
Fruits
Fruit a capsule, usually 4- or 2-valved, rarely fleshy or pulpy and indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds few-numerous, winged or not, with copious endosperm and small embryo
Distribution
A family of 5 genera and ± 40 SPECIES with a cosmopolitan distribution. A single genus is found in tropical Africa. The family is sometimes included within Gentianaceae, but significant differences have been found and in Cronquist’ s classification (Evol. & Class. Fl. Pl., ed. 2 (1988)) it is included within the Solanales rather than the Gentianales
[FWTA]

Menyanthaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Aquatic or marsh, herbs
Leaves
Leaves alternate, entire or 3-foliolate, sometimes orbicular and peltate
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic
Corolla
Corolla-lobes valvate or induplicate-valvate, margins on inside sometimes fimbriate
Androecium
Stamens inserted towards the base of the tube or between the lobes; anthers 2-celled, sagittate or versatile
Gynoecium
Ovules few to numerous Style 1, bifid at the apex Ovary superior 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentas
Fruits
Fruit a 4 or 2-valved capsule, or fleshy and indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds with copious endosperm and small embryo
[NTK]

Every, J.L.R. (2010). Neotropical Menyanthaceae.

Morphology
Description

Aquatic perennial herbs. Leaves above the water-level, surfacing or rarely submerged, alternate , simple , entire , orbicular , occasionally slightly succulent , cordate  or reniform , margins entire , dentate or crenate with hydathodal glands , venation palmate ; estipulate; petiolate , petiole bases sheathing. Flowers in terminal or axillary fascicles, heads, panicles or solitary, bisexual or occasionally functionally unisexual, actinomorphic ; bracts small and inconspicuous; sepals 5, basally connate ; petals 5, basally connate , winged ; stamens 5, adnate to and alternating with the perianth , staminodes 5 alternating with stamens, anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing via longitudinal slits; ovary superior -partly inferior, unilocular, syncarpous; carpels 2, stigma on style or sessile . Fruit a capsule . Seeds 1-many, dry, 0.4 - 5.2 mm, flattened or lenticular.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • Placed in the Asterales by the APG (APGIII).
Number of genera
  • One genus: Nymphoides Ség. with four species, N. fallax Ornduff, N. grayana Kuntze, N. humboldtiana Kuntze (N. indica (L.) Kuntze) and N. flaccida L. B. Sm.
Status
  • Native.
General notes
  • Also known as the Bog-Bean family.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Non-marine hydrophytes and helophytes of the Neotropics.
  • Recorded in Brazil, the Caribbean, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Argentina and Paraguay.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Intercellular air canals in stems.
  • Palmatevenation in leaves.
  • Fimbricate petals.
Key differences from similar families
  • The Gentianaceae differs in that their members having opposite leaves.
Literature
Important literature

Brummitt, R.K. 2007. Menyanthaceae. In: V.H. Heywood, R.K. Brummitt, A. Culham and O. Seberg (eds.). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Pp 212-213. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Ornduff, R. 2004. Menyanthaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Pp 249-250. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Images

Menyanthaceae Dumort. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Anal. Fam. Pl. 20, 25. 1829 (1829)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0