1. Saururaceae F.Voigt

    1. This family is accepted.

[NTK]

Maas, P.J.M. & Maas-van de Kamer, H. (2012). Neotropical Saururaceae.

Morphology
Description

Herbs, aquatic or in marshy habitats, perennial , rhizomatous, aromatic.  Leaves simple , alternate , basal , venation palmate ; stipules fused to the petiole Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed spikes or racemes with a basal involucre of several white bracts (Anemopsis).  Flowers actinomorphic , bisexual , whitish, small; perianth absent; stamens 6-8, anthers dithecal, longitudinally dehiscent , basifixed, introrse; gynoecium composed of 3-5 carpels, these connate only at the base (Saururus) or united into a 1-locular, inferior ovary sunken in the axis of the inflorescence (Anemopsis), styles 3-5 each with 1 stigma , placentation axile or parietal , ovules 1-10 per locule Fruits composed of 3-4 indehiscent , more or less fleshy carpels, each carpel 1-seeded (Saururus) or several-seeded capsules (Anemopsis).  Seeds few to many, small.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • The Saururaceae are placed in the order Piperales, close to the Piperaceae (Cronquist 1981; Stevens, 2008; APG III, 2009; Takhtajan 2009).
Status
  • The two genera are native in the Neotropics.
  • Saururuscernuus is used as an ornamental in aquaria and ponds.
  • Pollinated by insects, mainly syrphids.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics

This primarily North Temperate family comprises five genera and six species in Asia and North America, extending to the Neotropics with two genera and two species, from tropical Florida to Mexico, in marshes, bogs, and other moist places up to an elevation of 1,900 m.

  • Anemopsis Hook. & Arn. (1 sp., A. californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn.)  southern USA to Queretaro in Mexico.
  • Saururus L. (1 sp., S. cernuus L.)  Canada to Texas and Florida.
Diagnostic
Key differences from similar families

Differences from Piperaceae:

1.  Aquatic or marshy herbs; leaves basal, bracts non-peltate; stamens 6-8 .. Saururaceae

1.  Non-aquatic shrubs, trees, or herbs; leaves evenly spread over the whole stem; bracts peltate; stamens 2-6 .. Piperaceae.

Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Aquatic, aromatic herbs.
  • Leaves alternate, basal, rather fleshy; stipules small and fused to the petioles.
  • Inflorescences racemes or spikes, and flowers without perianth.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Sauraceae

1.  Inflorescence with a basal involucre of white bracts; gynoecium syncarpous; fruit a capsule —. Anemopsis
1.  Inflorescence without a basal involucre of bracts; gynoecium almost apocarpous, the carpels being connate only at the base; fruit fleshy —. Saururus

Literature
Important literature

A.P.G. III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 161: 105-121.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press. New York

Lentz, D.L. 2004. Saururaceae. In: Smith, N.P., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W., and Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering plants of the Neotropics. p. 346. Princeton University Press, Oxford and Princeton.

Maas, P.J.M. & Westra, L.Y.Th. 2005. Neotropical Plant Families. A concise guide of vascular plants in the Neotropics. 3rd ed., p. 176. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

Takhtajan, A. 1997. Flowering Plants. Second edition. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Wu Cheng-Yih and Kubitzki, K. 1993. Saururaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. Rohwer, J.G., and Bittrich, V. (eds.). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. 2. Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons. Magnoliid, Hamamelid, and Caryophyllid Families, pp. 586-588. Springer Verlag, Berlin, etc.

Images

Saururaceae F.Voigt appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Analyse Der Frucht Und Des Saamenkorns : 45, 67. 1811 (1811)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0