1. Hernandiaceae Blume

    1. This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Hernandiaceae, B.L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

Habit
Trees, shrubs or lianes, with aromatic oils in stems and leaves
Leaves
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple, digitately compound or 3–5-lobed
Inflorescences
Inflorescences of axillary, rarely terminal, corymbose or paniculate cymes, pedunculate, bracteate or ebracteate
Flowers
Flowers regular, bisexual, or unisexual by abortion and the plants monoecious or polygamous, rarely dioecious
Perianth
Perianth segments subequal, free or shortly united below, in two 3–5-merous, valvate whorls or in one 4–8-merous, imbricate whorl
Androecium
Stamens 3–5 in one whorl and opposite the outer segments when perianth is double, or (2)4(7) when perianth is single; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing introrsely or laterally by 2 flap-like valves
Sterile Parts
Staminodes absent or ± gland-like, 1–2-whorled, usually outside the stamens; outer whorl paired at the base of the stamens, inner whorl alternating with the stamens
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, 1-locular; ovule solitary, pendulous, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit dry indehiscent, often winged, longitudinally ribbed or with lateral wings (Illigera), or with 2 apical wings formed by accrescent perianth segments (Gyrocarpus), or wingless and enclosed in an inflated capsule (Hernandia)
Seeds
Seed solitary, without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons plano-convex, ± lobed, or flattened and spirally twisted
[NTK]

Sasaki, D. (2009). Neotropical Hernandiaceae.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Gyrocarpus Jacq.: 1 species widespread in the Neotropics and 1 species restricted to Central America.
  • Hernandia L.: Pantropical.
  • Sparattanthelium Mart.: Tropical America.
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Often long-petiolate (shorter in Sparattanthelium).
  • Cystoliths often present (Gyrocarpus, Sparattanthelium).
  • Flowers unisexual or bisexual.
  • Fruits dry, nucular or samaroid.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Aromatic plants (trees, shrubs or vines).
  • Leaves simple and alternate (entire or palmatifid).
  • Stipules absent.
  • Ovary inferior.
  • Carpel 1.
  • Ovule 1.
  • Placentation apical.
Key differences from similar families
  • In Lauraceae, the anthers dehisce via hinged flaps and the fruits are usually subtended by a cupule (thickened receptacle).
  • In Monimiaceae, the leaves are opposite (or rarely whorled), the ovary is apocarpous and superior.
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Gyrocarpus : trees, inflorescences axillary, flowers unisexual or bisexual (plants polygamous), tepals 4-8, stamens 4-5 with dorsal appendages, fruits with two large wings (samaroid).
  • Hernandia : trees, inflorescences terminal, flowers unisexual, tepals 6-10(-12), male flowers with 3-5 stamens with basal appendages, fruits subtended by bracteoles or a cupule formed by them (nucular).
  • Sparattanthelium : shrubs or lianas with recurving hooks, inflorescences axillary, flowers bisexual, tepals 4-5(-8), stamens 4-5(-7) without appendages, fruits without wings and not subtended by bracteoles (nucular).
General Description
General notes
  • The family is divided in two subfamilies: Gyrocarpoideae (Gyrocarpus and Sparattanthelium) and Hernandioideae (Hernandia and the non-Neotropical genera Illgera and Hazomalania).
  • Instead of tepals, the perianth parts are consider to be sepals and petals or only sepals by different authors.
Number of genera
  • Three Neotropical genera.
Status
  • Native.
Notes on delimitation
  • The Hernandiaceae is placed in the order Laurales by Cronquist (1988). Molecular studies support its affinity with the Lauraceae and Monimiaceae (Stevens 2008).
Literature
Important literature

Gentry, A.H. 1996. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa, pp. 456-458. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago and London.

Heywood, V.H. 2007. Hernandiaceae. In: Heywood, V.H., Brummit, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (eds.). Flowering Plant Families of the World,  p. 166. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kubitzki, K. 1969. Monographie der Hernandiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 89: 78-205.

Kubitzki, K. 1993. Hernandiaceae. In: K. Kubiztki, J.G. Rohwer & V. Bittrich (eds). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. II, pp. 334-38. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Kubitzki, K. 2004. Hernandiaceae. In: N. Smith, S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D.W. Stevenson & S.V. Heald (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, pp. 334-337. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Miller, J.S. & Berry, P.E. 1999. Hernandiaceae. In: P.E. Berry, K. Yatskievych & B.K. Holst (eds). Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana, Vol. 2, Eriocaulaceae - Hernandiaceae, pp: 592-593. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Pennington, T.D., Reynel, C. & Daza, A. 2004. Illustrated guide to the trees of Peru, pp. 198-199. David Hunt, Sherborne. 

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, version 9. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

Morphology
Description

Trees, shrubs or vines, aromatic, often evergreen . Leaves simple , alternate , entire or palmatifid , pinnately or palmately veined , margins entire , often long- petiolate , stipules absent, sometimes with cystoliths in leaves and axis (Gyrocarpus, Sparattanthelium). Inflorescences axillary or terminal , paniculate, cymose or corymbose; bracteoles absent (Gyrocarpus, Sparattanthelium) or present (Hernandia). Flowers hermaphrodite (Gyrocarpus, Sparattanthelium) or unisexual (Hernandia), actinomorphic or zygomorphic ; tepals 4-10(-12) in 1 whorl (Gyrocarpus, Sparattanthelium) or 2 whorls (Hernandia), sepaloid, free or basally connate , estivation imbricate or valvate ; stamens 3-5(-7) in 1 whorl, filaments with a 1-2 nectariferous glands , anthers basifixed, dehiscing via longitudinal valves; ovary inferior, carpel 1, placentation apical, ovule 1; style 1, short or elongated; stigma terminal . Fruits nucular, sometimes subtended by bracteoles (Hernandia), or samaroid (Gyrocarpus), dry; seed 1, endosperm absent.

[FWTA]

Hernandiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, with alternate, simple or digitately compound leaves; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, or monoecious or polygamous by abortion, actinomorphic, arranged in axillary corymbose or paniculate cymes, bracteate or not
Calyx
Calyx with 3–5 valvate subequal segments in two whorls or rarely 4–8 in one whorl
Androecium
Stamens 3–5 in a single whorl, when the perianth is double opposite the outer segments, often 4; anthers 2-celled, opening introrsely or laterally by 2 valves; staminodes gland-like, in one or two whorls outside the stamens, or absent, those of the outer whorl in pairs at the base of the filaments, those of the inner whorl alternate with the stamens
Gynoecium
Ovary single, inferior, 1-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous
Fruits
Fruit dry, more or less ribbed, either with 2–4 wings on the body or with two terminal wings formed by enlarged perianth-segments, or wingless but enclosed in the inflated receptacle
Seeds
Seed solitary, without endosperm; testa leathery; embryo straight; cotyledons large, plano-convex or flat and twisted around the radicle
[FTEA]

Hernandiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Habit
Monoecious trees or shrubs or lianes with bisexual flowers, with aromatic oils in stems and leaves
Leaves
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple or palmately compound, sometimes with small pellucid dots, 3–7-nerved at or a little above the base
Flowers
Flowers usually small, greenish yellow, cream-coloured or white in axillary, peduncled, corymbose or panicled, bracteate or ebracteate cymes, bisexual or polygamous by abortion, regular
Perianth
Perianth superior; segments free or shortly united below, in two valvate 3–5-merous whorls, or more rarely in one imbricate 4–8-merous whorl
Androecium
Stamens 3–5 in a single whorl, opposite the outer perianth- segments when the perianth is double, or 2–7 but generally 4 when the perianth is single; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing introrsely or laterally by 2 flap-like valves
Sterile Parts
Staminodes ± glandular, in 1 or 2 whorls usually outside the stamens, or absent; those of the outer whorl in pairs at the base of the stamens, those of the inner whorl alternate with the stamens
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, 1-locular; ovule solitary, pendulous, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit dry, often longitudinally ribbed, sometimes with 2–4 longitudinal wings (Illigera), or with 2 terminal wings formed by accrescent perianth-segments (>i>Gyrocarpus), or wingless and enclosed in an inflated capsule (>i>Hernandia)
Seeds
Seed solitary, without endosperm, enclosed in woody endocarp; embryo straight; cotyledons large, plano-convex, ± lobed, or flattened and spirally twisted

Images

Hernandiaceae Blume appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 11: 550. 1826 [24 Jan 1826] (1826)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0